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Everything posted by Entheo

  1. Entheo

    Radula marginata

    Hmm, according to some research, it is also found in Australia, at Brown´s River in Tasmania, and at Mt. Bartle Frere in Queensland.
  2. Hi there, wanting to refresh my mycology, I wanted to go through some lectures, so I went searching and found this from the Washington State University General Mycology 521 Class http://classes.plant...wsu.edu/plp521/ And here were links to several of the lecture powerpoints on this site http://www.ppt2txt.c...antpath.wsu.edu But after lots of searching (and quite difficult searching at times) here is a list of all the links that I could find (they seemed to have moved lectures around in different years, hence some missing lecures and doubling up of other Lecture numbers) General Mycology Syllabus 2007 http://classes.plant...abus%202007.doc Lecture 1 Intro to Mycology http://classes.plant...%20Mycology.ppt Lecture 2 Intro to Kingdom Fungi http://classes.plant...dom%20Fungi.ppt Lecture 3 Fungal Growth http://classes.plant...yphomycetes.ppt Lecture 3 Asexual fungi (cont.) Introduction to Ascomycota http://classes.plant...oelomycetes.ppt Lecture 4 http://www.plantpath...ure%209-11f.ppt Lecture 5 Hemiascomycetes - Yeasts http://classes.plant...20%20yeasts.ppt Lecture 6 Eurotiales - Filamentous Ascomycetes http://classes.plant...0Eurotiales.ppt Lecture 7 Erysiphales - Powdery mildews. http://classes.plant...Erysiphales.ppt Lecture 8 Pyrenomycetes - Claviceps http://classes.plant...renomycetes.ppt Lecture 9 Loculoascomycetes - Sooty Molds http://classes.plant...ascomycetes.ppt Lecture 10 Discomycetes - Cup fungi http://classes.plant...iscomycetes.ppt Lecture 11 Gasteromycetes - Puffballs http://classes.plant...teromycetes.ppt Lecture 11 Intro to Basidiomycota some aphyllophorales http://classes.plant...llophorales.ppt Lecture 12 Mycorrhizal Relations Hymenomycetes http://classes.plant.../Mycorrhiza.ppt Lecture 12 Mushrooms http://classes.plant...20Mushrooms.ppt Lecture 13 Heterobasidiomycetes - Jelly Fungi http://classes.plant...lly%20Fungi.ppt Lecture 14 Ustilaginomycetes - Smuts http://classes.plant...014%20Smuts.ppt Lecture 15 Pucciniomycotina - Rusts http://classes.plant...015%20Rusts.ppt Lecture 16 Mucorales http://classes.plant...20Mucorales.ppt Lecture 17 Zygomycetes and Trichomycetes http://classes.plant...ichomycetes.ppt Lecture 18 Chytrids http://classes.plant...%20Chytrids.ppt Lecture 20 Intro to Straminipiles - Diatoms & brown algae http://classes.plant...raminipiles.ppt Lecture 21 Oomycota part 1 http://classes.plant...%20part%201.ppt Lecture 22 Oomycota part 2 http://classes.plant...%20part%202.ppt Lecture 23 Cellular Slime Molds http://classes.plant...ime%20Molds.ppt Lecture 24 Myxomycetes - Plasmodial Slime Molds http://classes.plant...ime%20Molds.ppt Xtra - Lecture Cellular Slime Molds and Plasmodiophorids http://classes.plant...odiophorids.doc Lecture 25 Lichens http://classes.plant...1%20Lichens.ppt Lecture 25 Supplement - Lichens of North America http://classes.plant...ecture%2025.ppt Lecture 27 2003 Phylogeny and Evolution http://classes.plant...20Evolution.ppt Xtra - Lab 5 Archiascomycetes and Saccharomycetales http://classes.plant...romycetales.ppt If anybody knows of a Mycology course with notes/handouts up on the web, please put it up It will be a valuble resource for mycologists out there.
  3. The Silver Morning Glory, Argyreia nervosa, is found from India to Australia as a native, its introduced into Hawaii. So we should just be calling it by its pre-Americanised common name, the Silver Morning Glory.
  4. Entheo

    nelumbo nucifera

    While not dissing the Reader's Digest, I think there are better books about Australia's native plant usage out there,
  5. Scientists discovered that Tiwanaku (pre-Inca) mummies from the Atacama Desert area, had harmine in hairs from an adult male and a one-year-old baby, who both date to sometime between A.D. 800 and 1200 Andean mummies
  6. Entheo

    Elaeagnus Triflora

    I know that in the New Guinean Highlands the Gimi inhale the smoke the leaves of tobacco, an Elaeagnus species and an Amaracarpus species in divination rituals to enter a trance state, and I think the only species which is found in New Guinea is E. triflora.
  7. Entheo

    Flindersia bourjotiana

    What about if it is Flindersia laevicarpa, which contains harmalan, hesperidin, flindercarpin-2, in the leaves (Picker et al., 1976) and flindercarpin-1, flindercarpin-2, and flindercarpin-3 along with flindersiachromone and 8-methoxyflindersiachromone in the bark. Picker, K., Ritchie, E. & Taylor, W.C. 1976. The chemical constituents of Australian Flindersia species XXI. An examination of the bark and leaves of F. laevicarpa. Aust. J. Chem. 29, 2023-2036.
  8. Entheo

    daucus glochidiatus

    well according to Harborne et al, (1969), the seeds of the Native Carrot (D. glochidiatus) contains the essential oil myristicin. I dont know the amounts though. Nor do I know of anybody who has tried to extract the oil, but I suspect that different strains/varieties would have different amounts. Harborne JB, Heywood VH, Williams CA (1969) Distribution of Myristicin in Seeds of the Umbelliferae-D. Phytochemistry (Oxford) 8, 1729-32. Distribution_of_myristicin_in_seeds_of_the_Umbelliferae.pdf
  9. Entheo

    A sad site (image heavy)

    Usually it is actually, somewhere there is a great book about the Red Cedar harvested from the wild for its timber, so much so that it became very rare. he admitted he harvested 6 in that way, and that he intends to replace it with 6 baby seedlings (that might not survive) for the mature tree he took (come on, at least 2 seedlings per tree!) just my 2 cents worth
  10. Entheo

    plants for home defence

    thinking about it, there are a couple of bushfoods which should be good for home defense and able to survive the hot & dry Canberra summers, Desert Lime and from another site "Desert Lime trees exhibit many desert adaptation characteristics. They are the quickest citrus tree species in the world to set fruit after flowering. They protect themselves against grazing animals by sharp thorns, however, after growing above browse height of large kangaroos the trees grow no more thorns." also here "It is able to withstand long periods of severe drought and strong, hot winds. Under such conditions the tree will defoliate, leaving its thin, weeping green branches resembling a smoke tree. After germination, the tree develops a deep taproot and an enormous root system before making any vigorous aerial growth or full-sized leaves. It can endure high concentrations of salts in the soil and can grow up to 25 feet with access to water." and you can see the thorns and I think Native Currant: Acrotriche depressa is prickly, don't know how it would work as a deterrent though. And there are some acacias (Acacia verticillata) related to Acacia maidenii and A. phlebophylla that are very prickly and who knows, it might be interesting!
  11. Entheo

    plants for home defence

    Natives, now if you lived in a slighter wetter climate I could recommend Bush lawyer Or the Lawyer Vine (Calamus muelleri) Or Fire vine (Trophis scandens) and Stinging vine (Tragia novae-hollandiae) However living in Canberra, I would think Bougainvillea would be an ideal plant, apart from not being a native.
  12. Entheo

    Orchid Tea

    Hi Torsten, any of them native? just so I can add them into my talk at EGA
  13. Entheo

    indigenous opioid bark

    Hi Rahli better tasting? (which I assume) or better medicine? And has anybody tried to ferment any of these fruits to make a fruit wine?
  14. (here's something I wrote 10 years ago, before the Flora of Australia volume on Acacia's came out, but with the recent posts on Acacia's, I thought I would stick it up unedited) In the Subgenus Phyllodineae which is essentially an Australian subgenus with a few species (3) also found in SE Asia and the South Pacific but not found in Australia. It can be divided into several Sections of which it seems two closley related Sections, Juliflorae and Plurinerves as well as a recently described group which bridges the previous two Sections, the A. stigmatophylla Group are the most entheobotanically interesting. A while back it was estimated that there was 219 species in Section Juliflorae and 178 species in Section Plurinerves in Australia in 1987 (Maslin & Hnatiuk, 1987), since then there has been several more species desribed, some species separated into the A. stigmatophylla Group (Tindale, 1980) and there is also three species of Acacias in these two Sections that live outside of Australia and were not included in this count. Adding up phtyochemically known species of 10 in the Juliflorae with 3 of interest and 4 in the Plurinerves with 3 of interest (although one of those is only marginally of interest) leads to a figure of very approximatly 66 active species in the Juliflorae and 134 active species in the Plurinerves. With new species described the final figure could be slightly higher. Species in the other Sections could also be found to be of interest. Subgenus Phyllodineae Acacias of the Juliflorae section, The flowers occuring as spikes rather than as balls, and phyllodes (looks like the leaves for non botanists, really a modified part of the leaf that attaches the leaf to the stem) pluriveined. Species Component Field test Analysis Alkaloid Mayers,Silicotungstic,Other A0 - Pungent Phyllodes (Phyllodes end with Spikes) lysiphloia(1c)lf + + oxycedrus lf +++ + 0.16% lf +++ +++ pycnostachya ----------------never checked----------------- rhigiiophylla ----------------never checked----------------- riceana ----------------never checked----------------- triptera(1) lf + ++ verticillata lf ++ ++ bk A1 Anastomosing Nerves in Phyllodes alpina ----------------never checked----------------- argyraea ----------------never checked----------------- auriculiformis ----------------never checked----------------- brassi ----------------never checked----------------- brevifolia ----------------never checked----------------- cincinnata ----------------never checked----------------- concurrens(1) lf,bk +++ courtii ----------------never checked----------------- cowleana lf ++ + craspedocarpa ----------------never checked----------------- crassa ----------------never checked----------------- cretata ----------------never checked----------------- dallachiana ----------------never checked----------------- denticulosa lf dimidiata ----------------never checked----------------- floribunda lf + PEA, TRYP gonoclada ----------------never checked----------------- grandifolia ----------------never checked----------------- heliocphylla ----------------never checked----------------- holosericea lf,st ++ + bk ++++ ++++ 1.22% HORD humifusa ----------------never checked----------------- latifolia ----------------never checked----------------- lazaridis ----------------never checked----------------- leiocalyx lf,st + leptocarpa lf,st lf 0.09% limbata ----------------never checked----------------- longifolia lf,st +++ PEA, TRYP lf CH, DH, HDH longispicata ----------------never checked----------------- longissima lf +++ ++++ 0.25% bk 0.02% maidenii bk 0.6% DMT, MMT lf with bark gave alkaloids (1) mangium lf + bk + mucronata, var lf + ++ dissitiflora nesophila ----------------never checked----------------- obtusifolia bk 0.15% oligophleba ----------------never checked----------------- orites ----------------never checked----------------- phlebophylla lf 0.3% DMT bk -------------never checked----------------- polystachya lf ++ ++ bk +++ +++ bk 0.3% CH praetermissa ----------------never checked----------------- sophorae lf +++ +++ CH, HDH lf 0.15% DMT, TRYP,? bk 0.62% as in lf stipuligera ----------------never checked----------------- tropica ----------------never checked----------------- A2 Non-Anastomosing Nerves in Phyllodes acradenia ----------------never checked----------------- acuminata lf +++ +++ PEA, TRYP adsurgens ----------------never checked----------------- ampliata ----------------never checked----------------- ancistrocarpa ----------------never checked----------------- aneura lf 0.009% aprepta ----------------never checked----------------- armitti ----------------never checked----------------- aulacocarpa(1) lf + + ayersiana ----------------never checked----------------- beauverdiana lf,st ++ + binervia ----------------never checked----------------- blakei ----------------never checked----------------- bulgaensis ----------------never checked----------------- burkittii ----------------never checked----------------- burrowii ----------------never checked----------------- calyculata ----------------never checked----------------- caroleae ----------------never checked----------------- catenulata ----------------never checked----------------- cheelii lf chisholmii ----------------never checked----------------- cibaria ----------------never checked----------------- clivicola ----------------never checked----------------- conjunctifolia ----------------never checked----------------- conniana ----------------never checked----------------- coolgardiensis ----------------never checked----------------- crassicarpa ----------------never checked----------------- curranii ----------------never checked----------------- curvinervia ----------------never checked----------------- cuthbertsonii ----------------never checked----------------- cylindrica ----------------never checked----------------- cyperophylla ----------------never checked----------------- demissa ----------------never checked----------------- desertorum ----------------never checked----------------- diphylla ----------------never checked----------------- doratoxylon lf,st 0.06% drepanocarpa ----------------never checked----------------- echinuliflora ----------------never checked----------------- epedunculata ----------------never checked----------------- ephedroides ----------------never checked----------------- fauntleroyi ----------------never checked----------------- georgensis ----------------never checked----------------- gibbosa ----------------never checked----------------- gracillima ----------------never checked----------------- granitica ----------------never checked----------------- grasbyi ----------------never checked----------------- guymeri ----------------never checked----------------- hammondii ----------------never checked----------------- heteronerua ----------------never checked----------------- hemsleyi ----------------never checked----------------- hilliana lf hyaloneura ----------------never checked----------------- incongesta ----------------never checked----------------- inophloia ----------------never checked----------------- jackesiana ----------------never checked----------------- jibberdingensis ---------------never checked----------------- julifera ----------------never checked----------------- kempeana lf laccata ----------------never checked----------------- lasiocalyx lf leptostachya bk CH levata ----------------never checked----------------- longiphyllodinea --------------never checked----------------- malloclada ----------------never checked----------------- matthewii ----------------never checked----------------- megalantha ----------------never checked----------------- merinthophora ----------------never checked----------------- minyura ----------------never checked----------------- multispicata ----------------never checked----------------- neurophylla ----------------never checked----------------- olgana ----------------never checked----------------- oncinophylla ----------------never checked----------------- orthocarpa ----------------never checked----------------- paranerua ----------------never checked----------------- petraea ----------------never checked----------------- plectocarpa ----------------never checked----------------- pubifolia ----------------never checked----------------- pubirhachis ----------------never checked----------------- quadrimarginea ----------------never checked----------------- ramulosa ----------------never checked----------------- repanda ----------------never checked----------------- rhodoxylon lf,st ++ + sessilipica ----------------never checked----------------- shirleyi lf + signata ----------------never checked----------------- singula ----------------never checked----------------- spania ----------------never checked----------------- sparsiflora lf,st spirobis (ssp spirobis) ? CH, HDH -(found in New Caledonia) ssp solandri ----------------never checked----------------- sterophylla ----------------never checked----------------- stowardii ----------------never checked----------------- striatifolia ----------------never checked----------------- subtilinervis ----------------never checked----------------- tanumbirinensis ---------------never checked----------------- tarculensis ----------------never checked----------------- tenuinervis ----------------never checked----------------- tenuissima ----------------never checked----------------- torulosa lf ++ + bk trachycarpa ----------------never checked----------------- tumida ----------------never checked----------------- umbellata lf 0.013% (wetarensis) ----------------never checked----------------- -(found in Malaysia) whitei ----------------never checked----------------- xanthocarpa ----------------never checked----------------- yorkrakinensis ----------------never checked----------------- Other Sections Closely Related Section Bridging Sections A & B A. stigmatophylla Group drepanocarpa ----------------never checked----------------- nuperrima ----------------never checked----------------- oncinocarpa ----------------never checked----------------- paula ----------------never checked----------------- producta ----------------never checked----------------- setulifera ----------------never checked----------------- stigmatophylla ----------------never checked----------------- translucens ----------------never checked----------------- wickhamii ----------------never checked----------------- yirkallensis ----------------never checked----------------- Maslin, B.R. & Hnatiuk, R.J. 1987. Aspects of the Phytogeography of Acacia in Australia. in Stirton, C.H. (ed.) 1987. Advances in Legume Systematic Part 3. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Tindale, M.D. 1980. Notes on Australian Taxa of Acacia No. 7. Telopea 2(1), 113.
  15. Entheo

    Hebrews pdf post.

    how much ram does your computer have? (are you trying to run too many applications at once - it can take up a good chunk of processing power and ram opening up some pdf's)
  16. Entheo

    Emu apple - Owenia acidula

    Sounds like the effects traditionally associated with Pituri
  17. Entheo

    Possible kava substitutes

    How about all these other species? Alpinia mutica http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin...932788/ABSTRACT 5,6-dehydrokawain isolated from A. mutica Inhibitory effects of compounds from Zingiberaceae species on platelet activating factor receptor binding. 2005. Phytotherapy Research, 18(12) 1005 - 1007. Alpinia nutans 5,6-Dehydrokawain, flavokawin-B, 1,7-diphenyl-5-hydroxy-6-hepten-3-one, (-)-pinocembrin and a mixture of stigmasterol and b-sitosterol were isolated. The Antioxidative Components from Alpinia nutans. 2003. Pharmaceutical Biology, 41, 7–9. Alpinia globosa http://english.vista.gov.vn/english/st_doc...08180848599564/ Beta-Sitosterol, stigmasterol and a minor compound 5.6-dehydrokawain were isolated from the ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia globosa, a medicinal plant of Vietnam. Phytochemical investigation of Alpinia globosa (Lour.) Horaninov, Zingiberaceae. 2004. TC Hoá học . Vol 42. -No 3. -p. 376-378. Alpinia rafflesiana http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16376395 2',3',4',6'-Tetrahydroxychalcone, 5,6-dehydrokawain and other compounds DPPH free radical scavenger components from the fruits of Alpinia rafflesiana (Zingiberaceae) 2004. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. C. A journal of biosciences v59, 811-815.
  18. Entheo

    Possible kava substitutes

    you mean Alpinia zerumbet dont you? http://www.rain-tree.com/shell-flower.htm Lets hope this uploading works ;) Biologically_Active_Flavonoids_and_Kava_Pyrones_of_Alpinia_zerumbet.pdf GC_MS_Determination_of_Kava_Pyrones_in_Alpinia_zerumbet_Leaves.pdf
  19. Cant find it elsewhere on the forums, but does anybody know about the trace amount of THC containing Chillies? http://bobafett81.livejournal.com/851636.html "The Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) told supermarkets to withhold sales of S&B Assorted Chilli Pepper last week following reports that the Hong Kong Government found traces of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the product." http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/psycho...2623951358.html
  20. Entheo

    Betelnut Bisnis

    While we are talking about Betelnut, Taiwan seems to have much cuter betelnut sellers, now a while ago devance posted a link (now dead) to binlanggirls, but have you checked out Chew On This (Betelnut Girls)? Bin Lang (Betelnut) girl Betelnut Girls Slideshow http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LJWxs6eRNvY
  21. Entheo

    Radiation Eating Fungus

    Hi everybody, a fungus has been discovered (by researchers at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University) with "the ability to use radioactivity as an energy source for making food and spurring their growth." Although the fungus mentioned isn't actually edible (which is sort of implied by their statement "fungi as an inexhaustible food source on long missions or for colonizing other planets") http://www.innovations-report.com/html/rep...port-84775.html ""The fungal kingdom comprises more species than any other plant or animal kingdom, so finding that they're making food in addition to breaking it down means that Earth's energetics—in particular, the amount of radiation energy being converted to biological energy—may need to be recalculated," says Dr. Arturo Casadevall, chair of microbiology & immunology at Einstein and senior author of the study, published May 23 in PLoS ONE. The ability of fungi to live off radiation could also prove useful to people: "Since ionizing radiation is prevalent in outer space, astronauts might be able to rely on fungi as an inexhaustible food source on long missions or for colonizing other planets," says Dr. Ekaterina Dadachova, associate professor of nuclear medicine and microbiology & immunology at Einstein and lead author of the study. Those fungi able to "eat" radiation must possess melanin, the pigment found in many if not most fungal species. But up until now, melanin's biological role in fungi—if any--has been a mystery. "Just as the pigment chlorophyll converts sunlight into chemical energy that allows green plants to live and grow, our research suggests that melanin can use a different portion of the electromagnetic spectrum—ionizing radiation—to benefit the fungi containing it," says Dr. Dadachova. The research began five years ago when Dr. Casadevall read on the Web that a robot sent into the still-highly-radioactive damaged reactor at Chernobyl had returned with samples of black, melanin-rich fungi that were growing on the reactor's walls. "I found that very interesting and began discussing with colleagues whether these fungi might be using the radiation emissions as an energy source," says Dr. Casadevall. To test this idea, the Einstein researchers performed a variety of in vivo tests using three genetically diverse fungi and four measures of cell growth. The studies consistently showed that ionizing radiation significantly enhances the growth of fungi that contain melanin. For example, two types of fungi--one that was induced to make melanin (Crytococcus neoformans) and another that naturally contains it (Wangiella dermatitidis)—were exposed to levels of ionizing radiation approximately 500 times higher than background levels. Both species grew significantly faster (as measured by the number of colony forming units and dry weight) than when exposed to standard background radiation. The researchers also carried out physico-chemical studies into melanin's ability to capture radiation. By measuring the electron spin resonance signal after melanin was exposed to ionizing radiation, they showed that radiation interacts with melanin to alter its electron structure. This is an essential step for capturing radiation and converting it into a different form of energy to make food. Dr. Casadevall notes that the melanin in fungi is no different chemically from the melanin in our skin. "It's pure speculation but not outside the realm of possibility that melanin could be providing energy to skin cells," he says. "While it wouldn't be enough energy to fuel a run on the beach, maybe it could help you to open an eyelid.""
  22. Entheo


    I wouldn't think any artist would mind, as it shows that your appreciate their work. Any most artists want their work to be appreciated.
  23. Entheo


    here is a list of Ergot species in Australia (from an unpublished paper from long ago) Ergots in Australia Host Genera Claviceps *africana Sorghum spp. annulata Eulalia fulva glabra Digitaria spp. hirtella Eriochloa and Urochloa spp. inconspicua Hyparrhenia filipiendula *maximensis Panicum spp. nigricans Eleocharis spp. *paspali Paspalum spp. phararidis Dactylis, Danthonia, Lolium, Phalaris and Vulpia spp. platytricha Ischaeumum australe purpurea Many species in at least 80 pooid genera including Agropyron, Agrostis, Ammophila, Avena, Austrofestuca, Bromus, Dactylis, Danthonia, Dichelachne, Distichlis, Echinopogon, Elymus, Eragrostis, Festuca, Holcus, Hordeum, Lolium, Microlaena, Phalaris, Phleum, Phragmites, Poa, Polypogon, Secale, Triticum, Vulpia, plus the panicoid species Pennisetum pusilla Bothriochloa, Capillipedium, Chrysopogon, Cymbopogon, Dichanthium, Heeteropogon, Hyparrhenia, Sorghum, Themeda, Vetiveria queenslandicum Paspalum scrobiculatum And there is another table of all the active ergot species in the world (about 11 ergots and several other members of that family as well), but no native species in Australia has been tested (apart from purpurea which is found everywhere). So Claviceps africana contains traces of the alkaloids elymoclavine and agroclavine as well as several other clavine alkaloids. Does that answer your questions?
  24. While we are talking about such plants does anybody know the oil composition of the Blush-walnut, Beilschmiedia obtusifolia, which according to Flückiger (1887), has bark that affords about 2% of volatile oil and has a distinct 'sassafras' odour, implying it has safrole. Flückiger, P. 1887. The Distribution Of Safrol. Am. J. Pharm. 59(8), http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/j.../08-safrol.html and the River Red Gum, Eucalyptus camaldulensis was found to contain up to 0.3% safrole in its essential oil (Aboriginal Communities, 1993). (now if only there are high chemotypes out there). Aboriginal Communities of the Northern Territory. 1993. Traditional Aboriginal Medicines in the Northern Territory of Australia. Conservation Commission of the NT., Darwin.
  25. The leaves of the Safrole Boronia contain about 1.45% essential oil of which is composed of up to 75% safrole and the rest is composed of methyl eugenol and pinene (Penfold, 1924). Penfold, A.R. 1924. The Essential Oil of Boronia safrolifera. J. Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. 58, 230-233.