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I have created a ZIP file that is 97 Mb and details how to create your own organic soil. The files discuss organic soil growing marijuana, but most plants will benefit with these soils. I have been gardening for 15 years and have documented soil recipes and organic teas to maximize plant growth and keep the soil rich and healthy for years. Learn how to use a TDS pen, pH indicator, and soil moisture pen to understand your soil better and make your plants HUGE.

Once your soil is created and maintained it will last for decades. The initial cost of organic soil is higher, but once it is set up properly it will provide awesome soil to feed your plants.

$5 AUD and I will send the file 97 Mb using wetransfer.com

Join the green revolution and stop buying soil every few months because of toxic salt build up. Enjoy a sustainable organic soil that will keep pests away, use less water and create delicious food. Feed the soil first, make it your primary resource, and the plants will enjoy spreading their roots in the organic medium. Put trillions of bacteria to work feeding your precious plants.

contact me at [email protected]

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Edited by BCdude888

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Can you provide us with a soil anaylsis of the product you're producing with this method ?

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This is the tricky part...soil scientists don't really know how organic soil works. With the multitude of bacteria and creatures in the soil, there is just too much going on to understand the relationships between the living soil and the minerals and "dead" soil particles. There are amendments of 4-4-4 organic fertilizer to the soil recipe. In terms of the overall N-P-K ratio, I just don't know. I looked at hundreds of soil recipes and experimented for years until I found soil recipes that worked. Trillions of bacteria with water and minerals make for some complex relationships that I can not seriously comprehend. Just like Asprin 50 years ago, they knew it alleviated pain, they just didn't know the process.

The chemical fertilizers dispense their N-P-K at a set rate at a certain temperature (usually 20°C, the temperature plant roots enjoy) with decent results. The problem with these petroleum fertilizers is the negative effect they have in the soil. Farmers in Northern Thailand initially welcomed chemical fertilizers and the bounty they created. Over time these salts ruined the soil pH (acidic) and the crops diminished and eventually failed. Many people had to trek to Bangkok to start their life anew with mixed results. The sad part is that thousands of acres of once productive farm land is now a chemical desert. Some scientists are trying to establish crops that enjoy these salty soils, we will see if their results can feed people.

After dabbling with chemicals and organic soil I would have to say a properly created organic soil with adequate water will out perform a chemical fertilizer program. The soil will also last decades with the proper soil amendments.

I like my organic soil because I do not need any machinery. My shovel and back are the machine. I study the soil texture, water retention and drainage properties. With the proper mycology additives allowed to permeate the soil and give it a cohesive "intelligence", the organic soil really shines for soil and plant productivity. Before WWII, most farms in the world were organic. Petroleum fertilizers in the last 69 years have skyrocketed in use. It is my hope that this trend is reversed and organic soils once again reign supreme on our landscape.

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Edited by BCdude888

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That's a lot of megabytes to tell how to make soil

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The text part is 46 Mb and the rest are pictures. I wrote it concisely.

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When I was talking about a soil analysis I really wasn't interested in the NPK of the soil, I was more interested in its mineral profile. Things like calcium magnesium & sulphur. I'm also an organic gardener too, with correct management plants needs can come from only organic sources.

Steve Solomon is a noted author in regards to organic growing, his early books read a lot like your post above. He focused on building organic soils in the belief that if he supplied enough organic matter plants would get everything they need. After practicing what he preached for about 15 years all his teeth fell out. These days he won't grow food in soil that's never been tested.

Most people don't realise that it is very easy to build an unbalanced soil which grows plants that don't assimilate minerals properly and have incomplete proteins and lower overall protein levels. Anything fed on those foods can only ever have incomplete nutrition.

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^Steve Solomon is a good egg - he switched me onto using canola meal in the garden

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The minerals I use: vermiculite, Epsom salts, lime, bone & blood meal, glacial dust, green sand, wood ash [its cold here, darling], worm castings, rock phosphate and diamataceous earth. Also a 4-4-4 organic mix with more minerals and such. These are some of the soil ingredients. The mixing is the real magic, water is the catalyst that supercharges the soil. The teas are rich with molasses to invigorate the trillions of bacteria and allow their corpses and fecal matter to feed the roots. Soil is billions of years old. Research has shown that without worms working the soil with oxygen there would be a brown, boring earth.

NicK

Edited by BCdude888

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Just on a little side note

Have you considered culturing the organisms that are in your soil to make a super large amount of microbes in a dried/spore form?
Could quite easily boost the performance in a shorter time that way i imagine. Effectively have super soil in a matter of weeks rather than months.

I do it with some simple fungi, even the dreaded trichoderma, and the plants absolutely love it

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That's a super idea! I think my teas do that: Alfalfa, super septic enzymes, horsetail, comfrey, molasses, wood ash, worm castings. I like the fungi idea and have scooped up mycelium from my Birch grove and added it to the tea. Its a results-based approach, maybe I should buy a microscope ;). The tea is stirred frequently and kept on the cool side of the house to encourage the "good" bacteria and incorporate oxygen. Have also used an aquarium bubbler to increase the oxygen in the tea for plant benefit.

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BC are you the author of this 46mb of txt?

Just out of interest.

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Hi there

Yes, I am the author...by accident. I wrote down observations and kept notes over the years. Over the long cold winter I cobbled the best parts together and made a little booklet with pictures. This item is also on Ebay :bong:with the title Organic Marijuana Soils & techniques. I started out with the chemical fertilizers but gradually gravitated to the natural, less burning organic soil methods. The organic methods are superior for food and bud flavour. Bat guano really brings out the marijuana turpines at harvest :worship:. Any pothead will enjoy this book for bud cultivation, harvest and curing the sticky BUD to perfection.

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I have to say that I do believe it's a load of horse shit re:organic buds tasting better or organic produce in that matter particualry in this case vs 'hydroponic grown' stuff.

Has nothing to do with nutrition rather a lack of the full spectrum of the sun that is lost indoors and will never be able to be replicated.

Sorry, but I do believe Sustainable organic farming is the way to go, Just claims like that erk me

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Come to BC for the BUD...taste for yourself ;). A lot of indoor weed is not flushed proper...organic needs no flushing because there are no salts. I am partial to outdoor organic because I've grown indoor and for me and many of my friends, it is SUPERIOR. To each is own, I am making no outlandish claims here. Check out Soma Organic Growing book, that freak knows his weed, now living in Amsterdam. The food you feed any plant plays a HUGE role. You don't grow bud like this using miracle grow! The food we feed ourselves is very important. Don't be misinformed by corporate Food Inc, pesticide free organic is the WAY. Here the prices for organic have steadily fallen as more people wake up out of their stupor. Lets stop poisoning our Mother Earth and have a future worth living.

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Edited by BCdude888

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I don't disagree about poisoning the earth etc and I am by no means advocating the use of harsh chemical pesticides. I just feel it's time better served looking at sustainability issues, like sources of materials, how to prepare ones own compost properly etc things a long these lines instead of listing a bunch of additives etc.

I am sorry i am terrible at writing what comes to my head, sorry if this isn't that literate lol

In regards to cannabis, you seem to be mixing up indoor/outdoor with organic/synthetic, Cannabis plants can be grown organically underneath lights. Why is it superior to you and your friends grown outdoors? I believe as I said before it is not because of nutrition, as ultimately the plant is getting the same chemicals just from different sources. I would believe it has more to do with plant's access to the sun's full spectrum of lighting, allowing for a full profile of terpinoids/flavinoids to be created.

I guess this comes back to differences in our drives behind organic gardening

Edit* I can post pictures of friends plants as well :P

Edited by franky

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Anyone want to swap an organic tea recipe?

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Edited by BCdude888

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BC you have to understand who you're dealing with here. You are posting in Sustainable Technologies & Ethical Living... on a plant oriented website...on the internet. One of the most basic ideas of any business is "know your audience".

The people viewing this thread fall into 3 categories:

​1. Those that are already very knowledgeable about this topic, and don't need the information

2. Those that have already decided chem-free is not for them

3. Those that are curious, but have at least basic computer knowledge (http://bit.ly/1iW7gHC)

Personally, I am a bit of both 1 & 3. I am certainly no "expert", and like learning about new things. I am interested in what you have to say, however even at the low cost of 3$ (US, CND, or AUS), I don't think it provide me with anything I couldn't easily find here or elsewhere for free. I don't think 3$ is unreasonable, but consider the plant fiends your dealing with here. 3$ is another pack of seeds, or shipping for seeds, or some jiffy pots, or....

I don't grow the special sage anymore, but I still love plants. I try to be as organic as possible, and been known to get a little nuts about it too

I always hear this argument... "Chemical ferts are the same, plants don't know the difference. You @%$^@ hippies and your organic mumbo jumbo" I used to try to tell these type of people about the benefits, usually to the point of frustration. Now, I just smile and move along. You see, it doesn't matter what you say, because they can't listen or look into it for themselves. You certainly can't force them to feel. Usually when your still alive, but can't see, hear, or feel anything, it's because your unconscious. Trust me, :slap: doesn't work... They have to wake-up on their own.

However, I have good news for you! There are millions of people world-wide who are looking and listening :shroomer:. When they regain their senses, they will tell others how they can taste, smell and feel the difference. Don't worry, they won't make much headway either! Often, this can be discouraging, but you shouldn't give up. Just remember, you have to know your audience. Instead of wasting energy trying to convert the non-believers, why not spend some leisure time :bong: discussing it with like-minded folk? Why do you think research journals, internet forums, or compasion clubs exist? Simply because people with similar interests gathered together to share!

Since you seem to fit the criteria, I'll share a little about what I know on the subject.

  1. Soil scientists cringe at the word dirt. Soil is full of life, dirt is dead. http://urbanext.illinois.edu/soil/SoilBiology/soil_biology_primer.htm#Contents
  2. As you mentioned chemical fertilizer are typically produced as salts. As these salts accumulate, it becomes more hostile for microbial life.
  3. Fungi are awesome. However, I feel isolating a culture soil fungi would be futile. There are simply too many, and it would be nearly impossible to determine which are best.
  4. Your teas are the easiest and most economical way to raise these cultures. Although you can buy mycorrhizal products in stores, compost or castings gaurentees you have viable and diverse cultures.
  5. Did I mention Fungi are awesome? AMINO ACIDS IN THE RHIZOSPHERE: FROM PLANTS TO MICROBES.pdf

    Often referred to as the “building blocks of proteins”, the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids are ubiquitous in biological systems as the functional units in proteins. Sometimes overlooked are their varying additional roles that include serving as meta- bolic intermediaries, playing structural roles in bioactive natural products, acting as cosubstrates in enzymatic transformations, and as key regulators of cellular physiology. Amino acids can also serve as biological sources of both carbon and nitrogen and are found in the rhizosphere as a result of lysis or cellular efflux from plants and microbes and proteolysis of existing peptides. While both plants and microbes apparently prefer to take up nitrogen in its inorganic form, their ability to take up and use amino acids may confer a selective advantage in certain environments where organic nitrogen is abundant. Further, certain amino acids (e.g., glutamate and proline) and their betaines (e.g., glycine betaine) serve as compatible solutes necessary for osmoregulation in plants and microbes and can undergo rapid cellular flux. This ability is of particular importance in an ecological niche such as the rhizosphere, which is prone to significant variations in solute concentrations. Amino acids are also shown to alter key phe- notypes related to plant root growth and microbial colonization, symbiotic interactions, and pathogenesis in the rhizosphere. This review will focus on the sources, transport mechanisms, and potential roles of the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids in the rhizosphere.

Keep in mind, I still have a lot of listening, looking, learning, caring, sharing, sowing, growing, loving and living to do yet.

Edited by hookahhead
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Hey mate,

I agree with a lot of what you ahve written, and it was written much more legible lol

I always hear this argument... "Chemical ferts are the same, plants don't know the difference. You @%$^@ hippies and your organic mumbo jumbo" I used to try to tell these type of people about the benefits, usually to the point of frustration. Now, I just smile and move along. You see, it doesn't matter what you say, because they can't listen or look into it for themselves. You certainly can't force them to feel. Usually when you still alive, but can't see, hear, or feel anything, it's because your unconscious. Trust me, :slap: doesn't

See this is the problem, can you explain what you mean?

Becuase I think it is very stereotypical to say that anyone that doesn't automatically side with the 'organic is better ' side means they are all "@%$^@ hippies" with their organic mumbo jumbo. I have sat through lectures, going over the chemical properties of said nutrients, and at the point of entering the plant, organic or synthetic they are the same structure.

I feel I have to reiterate this again, I believe sustainable organic gardening is the way to go, and I am trying to keep my own backyard as self sustaining as possible while still producing food for me and my family.!!

​I just also believe there is far too much anecdotal information being spread around throughout the whole horticultural sector.

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Franky, I wasn't necessarily trying to lump you into the nay-sayer group, because you have mentioned a few times now that you understand the importance of sustainable organic gardening. I didn't make any mention about the sustainable part, but I completely agree with you.... just because something is organic, doesn't always mean it's environmentally friendly. Organic AND sustainable is my goal too.

I wasn't implying that anyone who does not side with organic are all "@%$^@ hippies" with their organic mumbo jumbo". I was referring to how my beliefs have been interpreted by others. Though this may simply be due to the fact that I haven't had a haircut in 4 years, have dreadlocks, and frequently wear tie-dye...

While it's true, plants can't differentiate organic vs synthetic nutrients because they are identical molecules, you can't claim "there's no difference".

I encourage you to read the research for yourself, and make your own decision. However, I would like to point out that plant's are a little bit more complex than a N-P-K value leads most people to believe. The interactions between plant/micro/macro organism are so complex that even the brightest minds in the field readily admit they can't fully comprehend it.

here are some excerpts from another fantastic resource to prove my point. The original source is to big to upload here, so I put it on dropbox

Plant Microbe Symbiosis: Fundamentals and Advances (2013).pdf

The other major group in P cycle and interaction with plants is the mycorrhizal fungi. Symbiosis with these fungi is very important to improve plant fitness and soil quality by increasing the plant uptake of P and nitrogen (N) by absorbing phosphate, ammonium, and nitrate from soil and also assists plant host in uptake of the relatively immobile trace elements such as zinc, copper, and iron (Zaidi et al. 2010). Moreover, mycorrhizal symbiosis improves plant health, increases protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, and improves soil structure through aggregate formation (Goicoechea et al. 1997; Barea et al. 2005; Zaidi et al. 2010). Other important organisms are rhizoplane or endophytic bacteria that colonize rhizoplane because they can release minerals, such as P, potassium, magnesium, or zinc, from the rocks and can live in extreme habitats (Puente et al. 2004). Under these conditions and the importance of plant to world agriculture, studies and applications of PGPR that have biofertilizing capacity are relevant.

Iron is essential for the growth of most microorganisms and plants. Despite being an abundant element in soil, its extreme insolubility at normal biological pH severely decreases its bioavailability. Harmsen et al. (2005) define that bioavailable iron is a portion of total iron that can be easily assimilated by one organism. To increase the iron in plants and to enrich the amount of bioavailable iron is a challenge of agriculture. The major challenge for microorganisms and plants is to acquire Fe (III) suf- ficient for growth. Plants and microorganisms have developed mechanisms of iron uptake and in many cases work cooperatively in the rhizosphere. Lemanceau et al. (2009) summarize processes as:

1. Acidification of soil solution mediated based on the excretion of protons or organic acids

2. Chelation of Fe (III) by ligands including siderophores with very high affinity for Fe3+

3. Reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ by reductases and reducing compounds

The efficacy of these active iron uptake strategies differs among organisms, leading to complex competitive and synergistic interactions among microbes, plants, and between plants and microbes. The chemical properties of the soil in which they occur have a strong effect on these interactions. In return the iron uptake strategies impact the soil properties and the iron status. Thus, multiple interactions between soils, plants, and microorganisms are driving a complex iron cycle in the rhizosphere (Lemanceau et al. 2009).

A complete list of secondary metabolites of P. aurantiaca which has been published up until now and their chemical structures are provided (Fig. 14.2). Studies involv- ing the use of these strains as a biofertilizer and a biocontrol agent for different crops have also been included. More than 20 secondary metabolites have been included in this list. As the purpose of isolation and usage of these strains is different for every researcher, therefore the author could not find the production of all metabolites in all strains. It does not indicate that these strains are not capable to produce those secondary metabolites; rather these are not analyzed for this purpose. Most of the compounds included in this list are produced by an endophytic strain PB-St2, isolated by the author herself. Isolated PB-St2 has been thoroughly investigated for the production of secondary metabolites. Information about most of its secondary metabolites has been published separately (Mehnaz et al. 2009, 2013); some unpublished information have been included in this manuscript. Complete profile of PB-St2 secondary metabolites is not characterized yet. Name of the compound and the strains which are reported for its production are provided in the following text. Detailed information about these compounds, strains, and their biocontrol/biofertilizer activity can be found in the given references.

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Hopefully this picture gives you some insight about how organic is very different from chemical. Admittedly, I can't say for certain.. but I would be willing to bet that the labratory synthesis of at least some of these compounds is unknown or impractical.

Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA)

Auxins are the group of phytohormones that are well known for plant growth promotion. Among auxins, indole-3-acetic acid is commonly produced by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). After nitrogen fixation, it is the second most important trait of PGPRs, responsible for direct growth promotion of inoculated plants. Several species of Pseudomonas are known for its production, and among them, most commonly known are P. putida and P. fluorescens. IAA production at different rate is known among most of the strains of P. aurantiaca (Andres et al. 2011; Mandryk et al. 2007; Mehnaz et al. 2010).

2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)

This antibiotic has wide antifungal, antibacterial, antihelminthic, nematicidal, and phytotoxic activity (Cronin et al. 1997; Raaijmakers et al. 2002). DAPG production by P. aurantiaca is reported in strain SR1 (Andres et al. 2011). The antibiotic was characterized by using thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and spectrometric techniques. Andres et al. (2011) reported the antifungal activity of this compound against phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina. Production of DAPG by SR1 in rhizosphere soil was also confirmed.

Alkylresorcinols (HPR and DAR) and Pyrrolnitrin

A systematic antifungal screening program of Syngenta natural products research group in Switzerland demonstrated that P. aurantiaca produces various antifungal compounds including 2-hexyl, 5-propyl alkylresorcinol (HPR). Nowak-Thompson et al. (2003) performed a detailed study on BL915, one of the P. aurantiaca strains, and reported the isolation of 2,5-dialkylresorcinol (DAR), an analogue of HPR. The authors characterized the biosynthetic pathway and gene cluster responsible for the production of this compound. BL915 was initially identified as P. fluorescens, and production of pyrrolnitrin by this strain was reported (Hill et al. 1994). Hill et al. (1994) characterized a gene involved in the synthesis of pyrrolnitrin and proved the strain as a strong biological control agent for Rhizoctonia solani (causes damping-off in cotton), due to pyrrolnitrin production as mutant strain could not inhibit the fungal growth.

C18H36NO and C20H31O3

P. aurantiaca S1 strain was isolated in Belarus, from municipal sludge containing cellulose and lignin. Mandryk et al. (2007) have isolated two compounds C18H36NO and C20H31O3 of mass 282.3 and 319.3, respectively, from this strain. These com- pounds were identified on the basis of QTOF-MS, and a proper name has not been assigned to them. C18H36NO is a cyclic aromatic N-containing substance and corresponds to the new variety of pyo compounds (Leisinger and Margrafft 1979), but C20H31O3 did not match with any reference compound in database. These compounds showed potential of being used as biological control agent against plant pathogens. Antibacterial activity against P. syringae pv. glycinea was shown by C18H36NO, and antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum was observed by C20H31O3. S1 strain also produced IAA and siderophores.

Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid and 2-Hydroxyphenazine (PCA and 2-OH-Phz)

These compounds have been reported from two strains of P. aurantiaca, PB-St2 and IB5-10. PB-St2 was isolated from a stem of a local variety of sugarcane grow- ing in Punjab, Pakistan (Mehnaz et al. 2009), and IB5-10 was isolated from a coastal sand dune in east coast of Korea. PCA and 2-OH-Phz are major secondary metabo- lites of PB-St2 (Fig. 14.3). PCA showed antifungal activity against Phytophthora capsici, R. solani, and Pythium ultimum, and 2-OH-Phz was active against R. solani (Park et al. 2012). Antifungal activity against Colletotrichum falcatum and antibac- terial activity against human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis have also been reported by PCA (Mehnaz et al. 2013).



2,8-Dihydroxyphenazine and 2-Hydroxyphenazine, 1-Carboxylic Acid (2,8-Di OH-Phz and 2-OH, 1-CA)

These compounds have been recently isolated from P. aurantiaca PB-St2 (Mehnaz et al. 2013). Calculated masses for 2,8-dihydroxyphenazine (C12H9N2O2) and 2-hydroxyphenazine, 1-carboxylic acid (C13H8N2O3) are 213.0664 and 240.0535, respectively. These are intermediate compounds, produced in the biosynthetic pathway of 2-OH-Phz and PCA (Chin-A-Woeng et al. 2003). 2,8-Di OH-Phz showed antibacterial activity against human pathogen Bacillus cereus and Arthrobacter crystallopoietes (Mehnaz et al. 2013). Production of these compounds is not reported from any other strain of P. aurantiaca.

380 S. Mehnaz



Lahorenoic Acids A, B, and C

These compounds are ortho-dialkyl-substituted aromatic acids. These have been isolated from P. aurantiaca strain PB-St2 (Mehnaz et al. 2013). Structure formulas of these compounds are based on NMR data, and masses were calculated by ESI-MS m/z [M + Na]+ and these are C17H22O3 (297.2), C16H20O3 (283.1), and C16H20O2 (267.1) for Lahorenoic acids A, B, and C, respectively. Details about these compounds are avail- able in Mehnaz et al. (2013). Antifungal activity of these compounds has not been checked yet. Searching database for structure formulas of these compounds ended up with some similarity with rubrenoic acid as a reference compound. As similarity with the reference compound was not 100 %, these compounds are named by the authors as Lahorenoic acid based on the name of the city of origin for strain PB-St2.

Viscosin/WLIP

Viscosin and WLIP (white-line-inducing principle) are CLP. CLPs produced by pseudomonads are composed of a fatty acid tail linked to a short oligopeptide, which is cyclized to form a lactone ring between two amino acids in the peptide chain. Viscosin is a cyclic lipodepsipeptide with structure formula C54H95N9O16. WLIP also has the same formula. Difference between the two compounds is that WLIP has d-leucine and viscosin has l-leucine. It is a major secondary metabolite of P. aurantiaca PB-St2 (Mehnaz et al. 2013). Production of viscosin has been reported by Pseudomonas libanensis, P. fluorescens, and other species of pseudo- monads (Saini et al. 2008), and production of WLIP is reported by Pseudomonas reactants and P. putida (Mortishire-Smith et al. 1991; Rokni-Zadeh et al. 2012), but P. aurantiaca is not known previously for the production of viscosin or WLIP. Currently the author is working on experiments to make a final conclusion about its structure whether it is viscosin or WLIP. The role of lipopeptides in antagonism against viruses, bacteria, fungi, mycoplasmas, and oomycetes has been described in detail by Raaijmakers et al. (2010). Specifically the “antifungal activity” has been studied for many different CLPs and for a wide variety of plant and human- pathogenic fungi and yeast.

Nonanal, N-Decanal, and 2-Ethyl, 1-Hexanol

Pseudomonads are capable of producing organic volatile compounds, and their antifungal activity has also been demonstrated (Fernando and Lindermann 1994). Nonanal, N-decanal, and 2-ethyl, 1-hexanol are volatile organic compounds, and they showed antifungal activity against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Production and antifungal activity of these compounds have been reported by P. aurantiaca

14 Secondary Metabolites of Pseudomonas aurantiaca... 381

strain DS200 (Fernando et al. 2005), an isolate from canola stubble. These compounds have been isolated from other species of pseudomonads as well, including P. fluorescens and P. chlororaphis (Fernando et al. 2005), but not from any other strain of P. aurantiaca.

HCN

It is a volatile antibiotic produced by several PGPRs. The compound inhibits the cytochrome oxidase of microorganisms. Cytochrome oxidase of HCN producers is resistant to cyanide and insensitive to HCN (Rudrappa and Baiss 2008). BL915, SR1, and PB-St2 strains of P. aurantiaca are reported as HCN producers (Gaffney et al. 1994; Mehnaz et al. 2009; Andres et al. 2011).

Siderophores

These are low molecular weight iron-binding molecules which have very high affinity for ferric ion. These molecules bind to the ferric ion, available in the rhi- zosphere, and make it unavailable to the pathogenic organism so these pathogens cannot proliferate. Some siderophore producers have a special mechanism to uptake the siderophore-iron complex. This complex binds to a specific receptor and then it is taken up by the producers themselves (O’Sullivan and O’Gara 1992). On the other hand, some plants have a special system to absorb the siderophore- iron complex and release it inside so plant can use this iron (Wang et al. 1993). In both ways, it helps to decrease the iron availability to phytopathogen and indirectly promotes the plant growth. Siderophore production is reported for S1, SR1, and PB-St2 strains of P. aurantiaca (Mandryk et al. 2007; Mehnaz et al. 2009; Andres et al. 2011). PB-St2 produces hydroxamate-type siderophores (Mehnaz et al. 2009). For other strains, the information about type or nature of siderophores is not available.

Pyoverdin

It is a yellow green, iron-chelating siderophore which fluoresce under UV, produced by fluorescent pseudomonads, under iron-deficient environment. Previously, it was known as fluorescein. The pyoverdin molecule has a quinoline chromophore, which is responsible for color, bound to a peptide chain and a dicarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic amide. Production of this compound has been reported for several pseudomonads including P. chlororaphis and P. aurantiaca. PB-St2 produces the compound in enormous amount, and the gene involved in its biosynthesis has also been detected (unpublished results; communicated by S. Mehnaz). Isolation and characterization of pyoverdin in rest of the P. aurantiaca strains have not been reported or carried out. Involvement of pyoverdin (produced by P. aeruginosa 7NSK20) in suppression of damping-off of tomato plants, induced by Pythium sp., has been reported by Buysens et al. (1996).

Acyl Homoserine Lactones (AHL)

These are known as signal compounds which are responsible for the quorum- sensing (QS) mechanism. Many bacteria regulate the production of antifungal compound through quorum sensing. These molecules consist of a homoserine lactone ring linked via saturated or unsaturated acyl chain and with or without a keto or hydroxyl substituent at C3 position. Production of hexanoyl homoserine lactone (HHL) is reported in two P. aurantiaca strains, PB-St2 and B-162 (Fig. 14.4) (Feklistova and Maksimova 2008; Mehnaz et al. 2009).

Cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val)

Park et al. (2012) have isolated this compound from P. aurantiaca isolate IB5-10 and also reported its antifungal activity against R. solani. Production of this com- pound is reported in other bacterial strain, but it was always under discussion whether it is a natural product or an artifact. Mehnaz et al. (2013) have discussed this point in detail, and it has been proven as an artifact which is produced due to autoclaving of LB medium. Park et al. (2012) also cultivated IB5-10 in LB medium which creates the doubt about its production as a natural product of P. aurantiaca.

Still not convinced?

Role in Plant Growth Promotion

Direct Mechanisms

P. aurantiaca possesses several mechanisms, including the direct and indirect ones, to promote plant growth. P. aurantiaca is not a nitrogen fixer, but IAA production is known for all those strains which were assayed for auxins production. Phosphate solubilization is observed in SR1 and PB-St2 strains. 1-Amino, cyclopropane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase enzyme has been detected in PB-St2. P. aurantiaca SR1 strain has been extensively studied for its growth-promoting activities through inoculation in different crops. Before going for long-term inoculation experiments, colonizing ability of this strain was studied in alfalfa, soybean, and wheat. Population density of this strain was in the range of 105 CFU/seed for these crops (Andres et al. 2011). Endophytic behavior of SR1 is also reported for several crops (Carlier et al. 2008; Rosas et al. 2005, 2009).

IAA Production

IAA production in SR1 was estimated, and it was noticed that production was maximum (11.7 μg/ml) in 24-h-old culture and later on it decreased. Production of IAA in PB-St2 was quantified by HPLC after 1-week growth. The amount was very low (0.15 μg/ml) and may be due to estimation after 7 days as it might be degraded in a week’s time. After nitrogen fixation, IAA is considered as a major mechanism involved in plant growth promotion. IAA produced by root/rhizosphere-colonizing microbes is proposed to act in conjunction with endogenous IAA to stimulate cell proliferation and/or elongation and enhance the uptake of minerals and nutrients by plants, from the soil (Patten and Glick 2002; Suzuki et al. 2003). The growth of plants inoculated with IAA-producing bacteria is affected by the amount of IAA that the bacterium produces. Thus, bacteria facilitate plant growth by changing the hormonal balance of inoculated plant (Vessey 2003).

Phosphate Solubilization

Low levels of soluble phosphate can limit the growth of plants. Some bacteria solubilize phosphate from organic- or inorganic-bound phosphates and facilitate plant growth. Strains of genus Pseudomonas have the ability to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphate (mineral phosphate) compounds such as tricalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, hydroxyl apatite, and rock phosphate (Rodriguez et al. 2006). Several enzymes, namely, phosphatases, phytases, phosphonatases, and Carbon-phosphorous (C-P) lyases, release soluble phosphorus from organic compounds in soil. C-P lyases cleave C-P links in organophosphonates. Release of phosphorus from mineral phos- phate is related to the production of organic acids, such as gluconic acid (Rodriguez

384 S. Mehnazet al. 2006). P. aurantiaca SR1 moderately solubilizes the phosphate (Rovera et al. 2008). This character was not detected in PB-St2 and neither reported for other strains of P. aurantiaca.

ACC Deaminase Production

ACC deaminase production is detected in PB-St2. Unfortunately this strain has not been used in plant experiments yet; however, presence of this enzyme, in addition to IAA production, makes it a good candidate for a biofertilizer. ACC deaminase-containing bacteria facilitate plant growth and development by decreasing endogenous ethylene level of host plant. These bacteria hydrolyze ACC (precursor of ethylene). The products of this hydrolysis, ammonia and α-ketobutyrate, can be used by the bacterium as a source of nitrogen and carbon for growth (Klee et al. 1991). In this way, the bacterium acts as a sink for ACC and thus lowers ethylene level in plants, preventing some of the potentially deleterious consequences of high ethylene concentrations (Saleem et al. 2007). Bacteria with ACC deaminase trait usually give very consistent results in improving plant growth and yield and thus are good candidates for biofertilizer formulation (Shaharoona et al. 2006). Several forms of stress are relieved by ACC deaminase producers, including effects of phytopathogenic bacteria, resistance to stress from polyaromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, salt, and drought (Glick et al. 2007).

Plant Growth Promotion due to Inoculation of P. aurantiaca SR1

P. aurantiaca SR1 has been inoculated in several crops, and growth promotion in these crops has been reported. Andres et al. (2011) inoculated alfalfa and soybean plants with P. aurantiaca SR1, in combination with Sinorhizobium meliloti 3Doh13 or Bradyrhizobium japonicum E109. It was observed that SR1 increased the length and dry weights of roots and shoots and dry weight of nodules of alfalfa plants in combination with S. meliloti 3Doh13 as compared to the plants inoculated with S. meliloti 3Doh13 alone. Similarly, increase in nodule numbers and dry weight of roots and shoots of soybean plants was observed with P. aurantiaca SR1 and B. japonicum E109, as compared to the plants inoculated with B. japonicum E109 but without SR1.

P. aurantiaca SR1 formulation promoted root development in wheat, sugarcane, and carob tree and root development and a higher number of nodules when co-inoculated in soybean and alfalfa, under greenhouse conditions (Rosas et al. 2005; Rovera et al. 2008). In order to evaluate its growth promotion effect in the field, P. aurantiaca SR1 was formulated as inoculant and applied on maize and wheat seeds at the sowing time. Low doses of phosphorous and nitrogen fertilizers were also added in the field. P. aurantiaca SR1 colonized the root system of both crops and persisted at appropriate population densities. Both crops produced higher yields with low fertilization doses as compared to conventionally applied fertilizer dozes. Growth promotion in SR1 inoculated can be due to involvement of more than one direct mechanism such as IAA production and phosphate solubilization, as strain is capable of performing both mechanisms.

As you can see, there is an enormous amount of recent, scholarly research into this. However, it's rather difficult to pinpoint the role of any single species or group...

post-11911-0-46824400-1400183367_thumb.j
http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/littonc/PDFs/301_Soils_IV.pdf

It shouldn't surprise anyone that organisms don't discriminate between organic and synthetic sources, because the chemical structures are identical. The real issue is, that we can't synthesis, simulate, or even comprehend what has occurred during 450+ million years of co-evolution.

After all, bipedalism has only evolved within the last 1-2% of the same time frame :unsure:
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-family-tree

Edited by hookahhead
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Great reading :worship:always enjoy learning more about farming and mycology!

Keep it COMING, I am a sponge for soil, mycology and gardening knowledge, failures and triumphs :wink:

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Cool posts Hook, the soil food web is way too complex to explain in a few minutes.

As far as I'm concerned a chemical analysis is only a minor part of the picture but it's gives a good insight as to what's going on in the soil. If you get a few basics right concerning the chemistry of the soil then often the biology will sort itself out. Compost teas are great to speed up the process and maintain that biological balance.

I was devout organic "hippie" for years until the weight of evidence became so overwhelming that I had to re-evaluate things. When I got my first refractometer (brix meter) I was able to see that the vast majority of organic produce available for sale (with a few noteable exceptions) was vastly inferior to food grown using convention chemical agriculture. A lot of organic produce available at markets will commonly show lower sugar levels than the cheap shit you get at the supermarket.

When plants are low in sugars they typically don't assimilate minerals very well or form complete proteins, so ultimately that food has a lower nutrient value than food that tests higher on the brix scale. It's not quite that simple but the brix measurements are possibly the best way for a home gardener to get some insight into nutritional values without resorting expensive chemical analysis.

Given the choice I'll take high quality organic produce any time, it's just finding the high quality stuff that's a problem. One of the main advantages of organic produce is the restrictions applying to chemical pesticide use. I believe if an organic grower is going state that their produce is better than they should prove it with side by analyses with food grown conventionally - and not just that generic chart you see at farmers markets that shows higher levels of nutrients based on an unknown ambiguous sample that can't be traced or proven.

If you want something to open your eyes about ideal soils google - too much compost, and see the problems it can cause. Organic adherents will often believe that mindlessly adding compost will solve all soil problems but it is simply not the case.

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Hey hookah,

I understand there is a very intricate system out there, but really sally I think has hit the nail on the head with her post!!

and sally, that is so true, According to Handreck & Black (my bible lol) no more than 30% organic matter in general otherwise it will be of now use to the plant.

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Its more than just the plants use of organic matter....its about the rhizosphere :wink: and what else is offerred by the microfauna and flora utilising it. Plants accumulate and use more than just micro and macro nutrients.

I've referred to Handreck et al for many years now, and it should be on most greenthumbs bookshelves I reckon.

EDIT - if anything the use of organic matter/humus is to improve the cation exchange of a media and improve the ped structure through the microflora/fauna "sticking" it together after using the OM.

Edited by waterboy

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All this roto tilling the soil can actually be damaging the mycelium networks and DEGRADING the soil productivity. The fungus/soil relationship is an awesome network of horizontal creativity. Fungus size can be 1000s of hectares large, ancient & all the same DNA. I make sure my soil mix has a mycorhizae component. I grow in containers a lot and just leave them alone, no stirring. Even in the bush growing, I leave them over the winter and plant seedlings direct in the Spring with no soil additives. Later in the growing season I will add more food and teas to make those green bitches HUGE!

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Edited by BCdude888

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