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The Corroboree


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Everything posted by hookahhead

  1. hookahhead

    JG X LJ

    A friends Juuls Giant x Lumberjack, 2 months from seed.
  2. It's well known that plants create compounds that inhibit/deter some pests. There are also commercial formulas that are marketed as organic pesticides. It's my intent to compile a list of some known plant/plant compounds that are have been shown to be effective against some common pests. I have a similar thread "The Good, Bad, and Bugly" to discuss the use of other organisms that may be used in pest management. Things to consider: Availability Application Effectiveness Target species Phytotoxicity (kind of defeats the purpose to harm the plant) Toxicity to other organisms [Think of the children (+ pets), we don't need any innocent victims in the "War on BUGS" ] Here's a few to get us started...I was quite surprised how effective some of these were shown to be, often 90-100% "Hey pests!" Aphids: APHIDICIDIAL ACTIVITY OF SEVEN ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE CABBAGE APHID, BREVICORYNE BRASSICAE L. (HEMIPTERA- APHIDIDAE).pdf "The aphidicidial activities of seven essential oils were investigated against Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) under laboratory conditions. Applications of each tested essential oil significantly reduced the reproduction potential of the cabbage aphid and resulted in higher mortality. Quantity of applied essential oils also had an important effect on daily fecundity. In general, these seven applied essential oils can be considered as an important aphidicide to control aphid population, particularly J. excelsa, J. oxycedrus, L. nobilis and F. vulgare. " Fungus Gnats: Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera- Sciaridae).pdf "Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively." Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera- Sciaridae).pdf "Plant essential oils from 20 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activity against larvae of Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) by using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity (>90%) against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of caraway seed Carum carvi (L.)], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.], mandarine (Citrus reticulate Blanco), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), cade (Juniperus oxycedrus L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and thyme red [Thymus vulgaris (L.)] oils at 30 X 10-3 mg/1 air. Among them, caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red essential oils were highly effective against L. ingenua at 20 x 10(-3) mg/ml air. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 4, 9, 8, and 17 compounds from caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red oils, respectively. These compounds were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua, and compared with the toxicity of dichlorvos. Carvacrol, thymol, linalool, cuminaldehyde, p-cymen, terpinen-4-ol, and carvone was effective at 10 x 10(-3) mg/l. The insecticidal activity of dichlorvos was 60% at 10 x 10(-3) mg/ml. Effects of four selected plant essential oils on growth of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, also were investigated." Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and monoterpenes against Lycoriella mali adults.pdf "Toxicity of various essential oils and their volatile components against the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella mali was determined. The most potent fumigant toxicity was found in essential oil from thyme followed by the oils of sage, eucalyptus, and clove bud. a-Pinene was the most toxic fumigant compound found in thyme essential oil (LD50 1⁄4 9:85 ml=l air) followed by b-pinene (LD50 1⁄4 11:85 ml=l air) and linalool (LD50 1⁄4 21:15 ml=l air). The mixture of a- and b-pinene exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity than a- or b-pinene itself against the mushroom fly adults. Therefore, thyme essential oil, a- and b-pinene could be potent fumigants to control mushroom flies during mushroom cultivation. " Fumigant Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera- Sciaridae).pdf Plant essential oils from 21 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingenua Dufour (Diptera: Sciaridae) by using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Acorus gramineus Solander, Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, and Zanthoxylum piperitum De Candolle at 25 ug/ml air. S. tenuifolia oil showed the most potent insecticidal activity among the plant essential oils. At 12.5 ug/ml air concentration, S. tenuifolia oil caused 96.6% mortality, but mortality decreased to 60% at 3.125 ug/ml air. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identiÞcation of three major compounds from S. tenuifolia oil. These three compounds were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua and compared with the toxicity of dichlorvos. Pulegone was the most toxic, followed by menthone and limonene with LC50 values of 1.21, 6.03, and 15.42 ug/ml, respectively. LC50 of dichlorvos was 8.13 ug/ml. Effects of S. tenuifolia and its components on growth of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer also were investigated. *Techniacally not a biopesticide.. But I certainly never thought of using Bounce Dryer Sheets BounceÒ Fabric Softener Dryer Sheets Repel Fungus Gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera- Sciaridae), Adults.pdf "This study was conducted to assess the repellency of Bounce® original brand fabric softener dryer sheets against fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila(Diptera: Sciaridae), adults. For all five experiments conducted under laboratory conditions, fungus gnat adults collected in the sample compartments that included Bounce® original brand fabric softener dryer sheets ranged between 12% and 18% compared with the mean proportion of fungus gnat adults recovered from sample compartments that excluded dryer sheets, ranging in mean proportion from 33% to 48%. Chemical analysis using a steam distillation procedure to isolate volatile constituents found linalool as one of the major volatiles detected in the Bounce® original brand fabric softener dryer sheets. Additional constituents isolated were benzyl acetate, beta-citronellol, and hedione. Based on the results from our study, under laboratory conditions, Bounce® fabric softener dryer sheets do in fact repel B. sp. nr. coprophila adults." Nematodes: Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oils and Their Components Against the Root-Knot Nematode.pdf "Nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants were evaluated in vitro and in pot experiments. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1,000 μl/liter. At this concentration, most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching. Essential oils of Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha rotundifolia, and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. These oils and those from Origanum vulgare, O. syriacum, and Coridothymus capitatus mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg reduced the root galling of cucumber seedlings in pot experiments. The main components of these essential oils were tested for their nematicidal activity. Carvacrol, t-anethole, thymol, and (+)-carvone immobilized the juveniles and inhibited hatching at >125 μl/liter in vitro. Most of these components mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 75 and 150 mg/kg reduced root galling of cucumber seedlings. In 3-liter pot experiments, nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg, respectively. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides." Mealy Bugs: Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus [size=4]http://www.insectscience.org/13.142/i1536-2442-13-142.pdf (too big to upload) "The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thyme- leaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used." Mites: Toxicity and Repellency Effects of Three Essential Oils against Tetranychus urticae.pdf "Two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most injurious pests of fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants worldwide, both outdoor and indoors. Currently the main method of control of this pest is through application of pesticides which is mostly accompanied by the resistance of the pest against pesticide(s). The resurgence of resistant mite populations brings about further contamination of foodstuff and environment. Essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of plants may have the potential to be an alternative to synthetic pesticides, since they have been demonstrated to posses a wide range of bioactivities against insects and mites. So, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of essential oils extracted from three different medicinal plants namely: Mentha longifolia, Salvia officialis (both Lamiaceae) and Myrtus communis (Myrtaceae) against T. urticae. The LC50 values of essential oils of M. longifolia, M. communis, and S. officialis against T. urticae were 20.08, 53.22, 60.93 μl L-1 air, respectively. This shows that M. longifolia possesses the highest lethal activity whereas S. officialis the lowest. Also, essential oils of M. longifolia, M. communis, and S. officialis were demonstrated to possess repellency effect with ED50s of 147.47, 138.80 and 164.41, μl L-1 air, respectively. These data suggest that essential oils of all the three plants have the potential to be employed in the pest management programs designed for a control of T. urticae under greenhouse conditions." Efficacy and Persistence of Rosemary Oil as an Acaricide Against Twospotted Spider Mite (Acari- Tetranychidae) on Greenhouse Tomato.pdf "Efficacy of rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L., essential oil was assessed against twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), as well as effects on the tomato,Lycopersicum esculatum Mill., host plant and biocontrol agents. Laboratory bioassay results indicated that pure rosemary oil and EcoTrol (a rosemary oil-based pesticide) caused complete mortality of spider mites at concentrations that are not phytotoxic to the host plant. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is less susceptible to rosemary oil and EcoTrol than twospotted spider mite both in the laboratory and the greenhouse. Rosemary oil repels spider mites and can affect oviposition behavior. Moreover, rosemary oil and rosemary oil-based pesticides are nonpersistent in the environment, and their lethal and sublethal effects fade within 1 or 2 d. EcoTrol is safe to tomato foliage, flowers, and fruit even at double the recommended label rate. A greenhouse trial indicated that a single application of EcoTrol at its recommended label rate could reduce a twospotted spider mite population by 52%. At that rate, EcoTrol did not cause any mortality in P. persimilis nor did it affect their eggs. In general, EcoTrol was found to be a suitable option for small-scale integrated pest management programs for controlling twospotted spider mites on greenhouse tomato plants." Toxicity of essential oil vapours to two greenhouse pests, Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn.pdf "Essential oil vapours from Satureja hortensis L., Ocimum basilicum L. and Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiacae) were tested for their toxicities against the nymphs and adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and adults of Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). The amounts of essential oils applied were 1.56, 3.125, 6.25 and 12.5 μl in each of the desiccators with 4 l capacity, corresponding to 0.39, 0.782, 1.563 and 3.125 μl/l air. Although desirable insecticidal and acaricidal activities against both of these pest species were achieved with essential oils of the three plant species, S. hortensis was found to be the most effective, compared with the other two species. It can be concluded that essential oils from these three plants are potential control agents against T. urticae and B. tabaci in greenhouse conditions." Insecticidal and acaricidal effect of three Lamiaceae plant essential oils against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn.pdf "Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) are two economically important pests of greenhouse vegetables and ornamentals. The management is commonly done based on repetitive applications of chemicals, resulting in environmental pollution and resistance in pest population. In the present study, essential oil vapours from Micromeria fruticosa L., Nepeta racemosa L. and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) were tested for toxicities against the nymphs and/or adults of T. urticae and the adults of B. tabaci. Amounts of the essential oils applied were 2, 4, 6 and 8 μl in each of the desiccators with 4 l capacity, corresponding to 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 μl/l air. The essential oil vapours of all three plant species caused the highest mortality in 2 μl/l air doses and at 120 h of exposure in both of two pests’ species. In general, higher mortality was observed as the doses of essential oils and exposure period increased. T. urticae was more tolerant than B. tabaci at all doses of essential oils in all times. The data may suggest that essential oils of all three plants have potential to be used for management of T. urticae and B. tabaci pests in greenhouse conditions." Thrips: Fumigant Toxicity of Plant Essential Oils to Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera- Thripidae) and Orius strigicollis (Heteroptera- Anthocoridae).pdf "The fumigant toxicity of 92 plant essential oils to adult Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Orius strigicollis Poppius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) was examined by using a vapor phase toxicity bioassay and compared with those of dichlorvos, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and thiamethoxam, four commonly used insecticides. Responses varied according to oil type and insect species. As judged by 24-h LC50 values, pennyroyal oil (2.63 mg/liter air) was the most toxic fumigant and was 23.6-fold more toxic than dichlorvos (62.09 mg/liter air) against adultT. palmi. Potent fumigant toxicity (LC50, 11.03–19.21 mg/liter air) was observed in armoise, basil, cedarleaf, coriander, cypress, howood, hyssop, marjoram, myrtle, niaouli, rosemary, and sage (Dalmatia) oils. Neither emamectin benzoate, spinosad, nor thiamethoxam exhibited fumigant action. Against adult O. strigicollis, dichlorvos (LC50, 6.3 × 10−6 mg/liter air) was the most toxic fumigant, whereas the LC50 values of the 13 essential oils ranged from 17.29 to 158.22 mg/liter air.O. strigicollis was 1.4–22.1 times less susceptible than T. palmi to the essential oils. The essential oils described merit further study as potential fumigants for the control of T. palmi in greenhouses." Repellency of Essential Oils to Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as Affected by Type of Oil and Polymer Release.pdf "Eight essential oils [0.125–1.0% (vol:vol) in acetone] were separately deposited on leaf disks to evaluate their potential to repel western flower thrips, [/size]Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), adult females. Two of the best-performing essential oils were incorporated into polymer matrices of methyl cellulose or alginate [0.5 or 1% (wt:vol)] to verify the potential of the polymer to extend repellency of oils over time (24–120 h). Results showed that at a concentration of 0.5%, Thymus vulgaris L. (common thyme) and Satureja montana L. (winter savory) were the most repellent essential oils. For these two treatments, no western flower thrips were counted on treated leaf disks 60 min after the start of the test. T. serpyllum and O. compactumalso showed repellency values ≥90% at this concentration. With both the alginate and methyl cellulose polymers, the incorporation of polymers into treatment solutions containing 0.5% concentrations of S. montana and T. serpyllum resulted in higher repellency compared with treatment solutions lacking these polymers for a minimum of 3 d. For the alginate polymer, differences associated with polymer concentrations were most dramatic. High repellency was maintained for 4 d when a 0.5% concentration of the alginate was used in combination with a 0.5% concentration of S. montana. The use of repellent oils with polymers that extend their repellency may prove useful for both pre- and postharvest applications in flower crops." Many more articles to go through... essential oil against thrips Whitefly: Toxicity of Plant Essential Oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera- Aleyrodidae).pdf "A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 l/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control. " Effects of plant essential oils on immature and adult sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B.pdf "Effects of essential oils derived from garden thyme, Thymus vulgaris L., patchouli, Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth., and lemon-scent gum, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson, on mortality of eggs, first-instar nymphs, and pupae, and on adult oviposition, of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B were determined under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations of essential oils, 0.125%, 0.25% and 0.5% (v/v), were applied in contact toxicity experiments. In separate experiments, 0.5% essential oil treatment was tested for repellency. Greater mortality was observed with increasing dose of essential oils. No phytotoxicity was observed on plants treated with these essential oils. First-instar nymphs were more sensitive to essential oil treatments, compared with eggs and pupae. The greatest effect was found with essential oil extracted from T. vulgaris, which reduced the survival rate of B. tabaci by 73.4%, 79.0% and 58.2% after treatment of eggs, nymphs and pupae, respectively, as compared with controls. In no-choice tests, the cumulative survival rates of B. tabaci females treated with T. vulgaris, P. cablin and C. citriodora were 46.4%, 38.8% and 26.8% lower, respectively, as compared with controls. In choice tests, the mean numbers of eggs laid on P. cablin, T. vulgaris and C. citriodora oil-treated plants were 74.5%, 59.0% and 48.0% fewer, respectively, than on control plants. Based on this study, essential oil derived from T. vulgaris possessed the greatest contact toxicity, while P. cablin oil exerted the strongest repellency to B. tabaci. Hence, these two oils could be used as effective and environmentally sustainable bio-insecticides for the control of B. tabaci." Additional articles found elsewhere in this post: - Toxicity of essential oil vapours to two greenhouse pests, Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn.pdf - Insecticidal and acaricidal effect of three Lamiaceae plant essential oils against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn.pdf Grain Beetles: Fumigant toxicity of essential oils against four major stored-product insects .pdf "The fumigant toxicity of 28 essential oils extracted from various spice and herb plants and some of their major constituents were assessed for adult coleopterans Rhyzopertha dominica, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Tribolium castaneum, and Sitophilus oryzae. Three groups of active materials were distinguished: (1) The compounds terpinen 4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and the essential oils of three-lobed sage, sage, bay laurel, rosemary, and lavender were most active against R. dominica; (2) The compounds linalool,α-terpineol, and carvacrol and the essential oils of oregano, basil, Syrian marjoram, and thyme were most active against O. surinamensis; and (3) the compound 1,8-cineole and the essential oils anise and peppermint were active against T. castaneum." Miscellaneous: Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural pesticide.pdf "Eucalyptus (family Myrtaceae), an Australian native, represented by around 700 species is a genus of tall, evergreen and magnificent trees cultivated world over for its oil, gum, pulp, timber, medicine and aesthetic value. Among the various wood and non-wood products, essential oil found in its foliage is the most important one and finds extensive use in food, perfumery and pharmaceutical industry. In addition, the oil possesses a wide spectrum of biological activity including anti-microbial, fungicidal, insecticidal/insect repellent, herbicidal, acaricidal and nematicidal. The present paper discusses this environmentally benign pest control using eucalyptus oils against bacteria, fungi, insects, nematodes, weeds and mites. The use of eucalyptus oil as a natural pesticide is of immense significance in view of the environmental and toxicological implications of the indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and overcoming/reducing the problem of increasing pest resistance." *Great article that discusses several essential oils, and some of the legalities BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES, DETERRENTS, AND REPELLENTS IN MODERN AGRICULTURE AND AN INCREASINGLY REGULATED WORLD.pdf *Another article from the same author^ Plant essential oils for pest and disease management.pdf "Certain essential plant oils, widely used as fragrances and #avors in the perfume and food industries, have long been reputed to repel insects. Recent investigations in several countries confirm that some plant essential oils not only repel insects, but have contact and fumigant insecticidal actions against speci"c pests, and fungicidal actions against some important plant pathogens. As part of an e!ort aimed at the development of reduced-risk pesticides based on plant essential oils, toxic and sublethal e!ects of some essential oil terpenes and phenols have been investigated using the tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) as model pest species. In this paper I review (i) the range of biological activities of essential oils and their constituents; (ii) their toxicity and proposed mode-of-action in insects; (iii) their potential health and environmental impacts as crop protectants; and (iv) commercialization of pesticides based on plant essential oils. 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved." *Handbook of Vegetable Pests. Great book, though not necessarily focused on biopesticides (too big to upload) http://www.scribd.com/doc/36539756/Handbook-of-Vegetable-Pests#download *An entire book on the subject biopesticides- Pest management and regulation.pdf "Biological controls that utilize natural predation, parasitism or other natural mechanisms, is an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical pesticides. Chemical pesticide methods are becoming less readily available due to increasing resistance problems and the prohibition of some substances. This book addresses the challenges of insufficient information and imperfectly understood regulatory processes in using biopesticides. It takes an interdisciplinary approach providing internationally comparative analyses on the registration of biopesticides and debates future biopesticide practices." *Covers several pests, commercially available products, and phytotoxicity Effect of Commercially Available Plant-Derived Essential Oil Products on Arthropod Pests.pdf "Plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from Environmental Protection Agency registration under section 25 {B} of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. However, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. In fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not been subject to rigorous evaluation, and there is minimal scientific information or supporting data associated with efficacy against arthropod pests. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to determine the efficacy and phytotoxicity of an array of plant-derived essential oil products available to consumers on arthropod pests including the citrus mealybug,Planococcus citri (Risso); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype, Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius); and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Although the products Flower Pharm (cottonseed, cinnamon, and rosemary oil) and Indoor Pharm (soybean, rosemary, and lavender oil) provided >90% mortality of citrus mealybug, they were also the most phytotoxic to the coleus,Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants. Both GC-Mite (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil) and Bugzyme (citric acid) were most effective against the twospotted spider mite (≥90% 0ortality). However, SMC (canola, coriander oil, and triethanolamine), neem (clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil), and Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) provided >80% mortality. Monterey Garden Insect Spray, which contained 0.5% spinosad, was most effective against western flower thrips with 100% mortality. All the other products evaluated failed to provide sufficient control of western flower thrips with <30% mortality. In addition, the products Pest Out (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil), Bang (Pipereaceae), and Fruit & Vegetable Insect Spray (rosemary, cinnamon, clove oil, and garlic extract) had the highest flower (transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii [H. Bolus ex Hook.f]) phytotoxicity ratings (≥4.5 of 5) among all the products. None of the plant-derived essential oil products provided sufficient control of sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype or green peach aphid 7, 14, and 21 d after application. Furthermore, the products Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) and Sharpshooter (sodium lauryl sulfate and clove oil) were phytotoxic to the poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch, plants. This study is one of the first to quantitatively demonstrate that commercially available plant-derived essential oil products vary in their effectiveness against certain arthropod pests stated on the label and are phytotoxic." *This link provides several articles that suggest anise seed is effective against mosquitos, fungi, and bacteria. http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/fighting-fungus-cleansing-with-anise-seed/
  3. Hello all this is my first post here. I have been a long time member at shroomery, and only recently found this place. I posted this over there but would like to share it with everyone here as well. Sorry that the pictures are linked from another forum, it would be a lot to upload and replace over here. First a little backstory...My second job is a prep cook at a franchise restaurant on weekends. This provides me a little bit of "fun" money. I won't name the restaurant, but I was honestly excited when I got hired because they present themselves as kinda hip/green whatever and seemed chill. After I got behind the curtain I realized it was just another greedy company using the word organic to sell their overpriced garbage. I began to notice that no one used the recycling bin that was provided. As a high volume pre packaged restaurant, they produce a huge amount of waste. After harassing the general manager on the issue for a few months, they finally started to increase awareness of the recycling bin. I think people decided that it was easier to recycle than listen to the ramblings about the importance of recycling / earth stewardship and the love for mother earth from the hippy in the back. This is a year later, and the recycling bin is still being used heavily While harping on everyone about recycling, I started to notice the food waste that my position produced. I wanted to figure a way to divert this from the landfill, but there is no way I can compost all of this food in an open compost. I live in a fairly nice neighborhood and my neighbors would be quick to call the cops on my rotting mess. Then I remembered reading about worms a few years earlier; that night I was home googling my way through worm forums. Just like any other hobby that starts this way, there are so many conflicting stories as to whats "best" for said organism. Not to mention all kinds of crazy ideas people have come up with. November, 2011 I placed an order for 2 lb of red wiggler composting worms ( Eisenia fetida). I keep them in an attached garage that probably stays 45-80 year round. They do not care for extreme temperatures <32f or >90f. I plan to show you what has worked for me. These are my worm bins, as you can see I have 3 now. They might possibly be repurposed mono tubs The middle and the left handed one have screen over the vents, however I have found this unnecessary and did not do it for the third one. The lids have landscape cloth glued to the inside edge. I would probably put it on the outside if I make anymore. There are several (15ish) 3/8 inch holes drilled around the underside of the bin. This allows leachate to drain out. This is NOT worm tea and will go anaerobic fairly quickly. It is excess water that has passed through the bin. In my opinion some leachate is good because it lets you know that your bin is damp enough. However if your bin is producing a decent bit, you are most likely adding to much water in some form. I dump this liquid on my grass as I am sure it does have some nutrients or benefit to it, but avoid using it on my garden / potted plants. This is what the inside of the bin looks like. The brown paper at the top is just a paper bag. I only have it folded back to show underneath. Worms are photosensitive and this helps keep some light off them. It also helps hold in some moisture close to the surface, worms tend to hang out a little deeper if the top is dry. Remarkably true as all of the sites proclaim, there is little to no smell from a properly maintained bin. The worms that I raise are often generically called red wiggler worms, or tiger worms due to the yellow banding on the tail. Scientifically they are Eisenia fetida. There are other types that are suitable such as Eisenia hortensis, Eudrillus eugeniae, Perionyx excavates and a few others. All live in similar conditions, but are better adapted to different areas. They are what are considered "leaf litter" feeders and are typically found in the top 12" of soil. Canadian night crawlers are not a correct type of worm to use. They are deep burrowers and do not like to be disturbed, not suited for a enclosed bin. Each bin has enough area to support a population of about 2 pounds of worms. A juvenile is on the left and an adult is on the right. Notice the band near the head on the adult? This is called the clitellum and is how worms mate. They lay facing different directions and line up their clitellum. A mucus forms around both bands and they each transfer sperm. Both worms will then lay a cocoon, essentially a worm egg. They are lemon shaped and typically a light yellow when first laid, darkening to brown with age. Typically 3-5 worms emerge from each cocoon. Other Organisms You will encounter some creatures besides worms in your bin. You are setting up a smorgasbord of fine rotting food here, get friendly with some other decomposers. Some people freak out about these cohabitants, but honestly there is nothing you can do; they will show up eventually. I don't mind them at all, the way I see it is they too are breaking down the organic matter, and speeding up the process I imagine. Random gnats and flies. These are the most annoying for me honestly, just because they like to fly into eyes, ears, or your nose. I place permethrin (an insecticide :sad:) around my garage windows, they tend to migrate to light after leaving the bin. I also have a fly strip that I occasionally change. This definitely doesn't stop them, but it does help control the population some Mites will also be a guaranteed resident. They are very small and are the red "bumps" in the following pictures. There are 2 different varieties this reddish brown and white, I have both in my bin. The shear number in population that these guys can reach is astounding. Literally thousands of them. They tend to stay in the top inch or so of the bin, happily munching away. Some other inhabitants that you will most likely encounter are springtails, potworms, and fungi. Feeding As I mentioned earlier I collect food from where I work, usually at least 10 gallon per weekend. This typically consists of tomatoes, onions, lettuce, pineapple, lemons, grapes, strawberries, cucumber, melons... well you get the idea. Things like pineapple and citrus are often advised against for worms due to their high acid content. About every other week I collect 5 gallon of coffee + filters (carbon source!) for a nice nitrogen boost. Meat and dairy should be avoided because they tend to turn rancid, which causes a very foul odor. I also collect about 100 egg shells per weekend. I rinse these in water that is first used to rinse off the vegetables. Once the yolks are rinsed out I bake them with whatever needs to go in the oven to dry them. I crush them by hand and add them to the collected scraps. The only other processing I do is dicing up the tops/rinds of pineapples. I have also found it beneficial to dice up grape stems, they take a while to break down and get clumped up with gunk if not. I get paid a meager wage, but the amount of worm food I can collect is a nice bonus. I originally tried adding fresh food scraps straight to my bin. What all these worms sites forget to mention is that fruit/veggie scraps contain a very large amount of water. Once it starts breaking down the water is released, turning your bin into an anaerobic mucky mess. A little more reading lead to a solution... a compost tumbler. I built this one based on these plans Tumbler. This has worked marvelously for me. It accomplishes 2 things, it begins the rotting process softening the food waste which makes it easier for worms to dig in. It also releases a large amount of water in the form of leachate as well. This also gets dumped on the grass. This liquid is probably low on the ph scale due to the fairly acidic foods that I add. The egg shells are reported to help buffer the ph. The chemistry behind it is simple calcium carbonate reacts with acid resulting in calcium and CO2, but not sure how readily it plays out in real life. I usually give then tumbler a couple of turns every evening. I feed my worms once a week and this is usually the only time I open my bin to mess with my worms. The blue bins slide nicely under my tumbler, which allows me to dump straight from the tumbler into the bin. As you can see there is very little plant matter left that is identifiable, but is no where close to being finished compost. I then add the pre-compost to the top of my bin, spreading it across the entire surface at about 1-1.5 inches deep. This usually takes about 2.5 to 3 gallon. before After Add a bit of torn cardboard as fresh bedding and replace the brown bag cover. Thats it, the worms will quickly move into the new food and begin doing their thing. I collect "cardboard" to use as bedding and a carbon source in my tumbler. While corrugated cardboard is readily available, we also recycle that and I feel that getting more life out of the paper pulp before it becomes worm poop is a good call. So what I collect is egg crate, drink carriers, and the piece that separates apples in the box. I tear this into smaller pieces. I collect a good many of these as well and can fill a 5 gallon bucket once shredded. This part is tedious but a little :pipesmoke: and a good show helps make the process a little easier. Also the promise of ice-cream often works on children who eagerly tear it to shreds. Of course you could use some type of machine, but lets use less fossil fuels and more child labor! Once I have fed my worms, it is time to add the collected food scraps and the rest of the cardboard to the tumbler. As you can see there is still a decent bit of material left in it (10 to 15 gallon) this will help inoculate the fresher scraps and provide continuous compost. While my boss is cool with my hobby, she has made it apparent that I can only collect on the weekends. During the weak the bureaucratic fat cats (corporate and state auditors) tend to dislike anything like this. Harvest I harvest the castings about every three months. I typically stop feeding a bin for 2-3 weeks before harvesting. This helps ensure that most of the matter is processed, and it also allows the bin to dry out a little bit. The material in the bin is now mostly nice dark worm castings. I use a trommel for this. The screen is simply a 5 gallon bucket cut in half, with some 1/4" hardware cloth riveted to the two ends. I cut the notch that previously held the handle out to ensure smooth rotation. The wheels at the front fit right into these groves. The bottom part was built from a wooden pallet and a kid's stroller that was being thrown out. A few pieces of cardboard helps to keeps flying castings directed towards the catch bin. The material from the bin is loaded into the higher end of the trammel. I like to crumble it a little before adding it. As the screen is spun, the material moves towards the opposite end and falls into a separate bin. A friend spinning the screen while I load makes this go fairly quickly. After running the entire bin through the trommel I ended up with about a 1/2 bin of material with a large number of worms. This can be split between 2 bins to expand your herd. I do not need another bin at this time though. It could also run though again in a week if I didn't feed the worms again. There is still a good bit of castings mixed in, but is in larger clumps due to moisture or bits of unprocessed material. Finally the dark crumbly goodness. This contains a fair number of worms. I like to remove them at this point and add them to the 1/2 bin of larger material. Worms are are photosensitive and do their best to avoid light. By now most of them have worked their way deeper into the pile. I then scoop this a handful at a time doing a quick search for stray worms. By taking advantage of their light sensitivity, I clean the top inch or so of the pile, pulling from a different spot for each handful. By the time I get back to the beginning the worms have dug deeper. Since the castings are screened, they are very light and crumbly. It's easier than it sounds to quickly separate most of the worms. You could rescreen this material with a hand screen faster, but it would still miss many of the smaller worms. Plus I like playing in the dirt sometimes :shrug:, it allows me to examine the material and see what didn't break down very well. This yeilded a very full 5 gallon bucket of castings. I could use my black gold right away, but I like to let it age a bit. Unfortunately, worm cocoons are very small, and fall through with the castings. I allow the bucket to sit for about a month and then sort it again for worms. If you wait to long, the worms will grow up and lay more cocoons. These juveniles, the few worms I inevitably missed, mites, fungi and microorganisms will quickly break down any remaining food. I hope you enjoyed, thanks for looking!
  4. Thought I would share a bit of an amusing story with everybody. Sometime around the end of 2012, I was looking for acquire a bit more pereskiopsis for grafting. A very generous member of another forum sent me a box stuffed full of plants. Along with the pereskiopsis I had asked for, they had tossed in several other plants and seeds, for FREE ! (If you happen to read this, thank you again for your generosity) However there was one thing in the box that I didn't really have a clue what it was. At first I thought it might be a seed pod or something, but I had no luck getting it open. I quickly forgot about it and It sat in my drawer for a month before I rediscovered it. I immediately noticed it was significantly more dehydrated than when I received it. Reexamining it, I noticed the bottom of it was cut and had calloused over. It also appeared to have small indented areas, which kinda looked like areoles to me. Of course its a small cactus cutting! I had only been growing cacti for 3-4 months at the time and was disappointed that I didn't recognize it at first. Here I had this cool looking purple/blue cactus cutting, and I had probably killed it. Hoping for the best, I potted it up like a normal cactus cutting, and watered it occasionally. After a few weeks, It had rehydrated and was starting to root. It didn't do much for a while, but I was thankful that it was even still alive. About 2 months passed, and then it pushed out a little purple pup! However the pup never really grew much, and I had been considering grafting it. Luckily, before I could make an even bigger fool of myself, the had plant developed a stem with leaves. (notice the "pup" and "aeroles"?) Hmm, something obviously wasn't right here... Afraid that I had been incubating some kind of alien egg, I finally messaged the sender to find out what it was before it hatched. I was a bit embarrassed to learn that it wasn't a cactus at all, but a Purple Peruvian fingerling potato! I had never grown potatoes before, so I did a bit of reading about them. The seed potato produced several shoots, which I would remove and place into a large pot. It's suggested when growing potatoes that you plant them shallow, and continue to cover them with dirt as they grow. This allows them to develop tubers the whole way up the stem. When I harvested at the end of the summer, this is what had grown (original potato on the left) I had intended on eating a few at some point, but again I had neglected them. I noticed a month ago, that they had all sprouted. I got a lot of enjoyment growing these last year, and certainly wanted them in my garden again this summer. However, I don't have much room for a garden, and certainly not enough to grow them in pallets like many people suggest. If you're familiar with my other posts, you already know that if it's recycled or free...than it's for me! My gardens made almost entirely out of trash . So, this is what I came up with.. I have access to free large burlap coffee sacks. The milk crate I already had laying around and seemed ideal. It's decently sized, provides structure, yet has large enough holes to allow the roots to roam freely. The bags are about waist high, so I rolled the extra down around the milk crate. I will continue to fill it with dirt as they grow, and unravel the burlap when the milk crate becomes full. Hopefully, by the end of the summer, I'll have a giant sack of purple cacti potatoes!
  5. hookahhead

    Seed Giveaway (cacti & more)

    Sorry I didn't get a chance to get the seeds out before my trip, however I'll have them out in the next day or two I'll update again when they go out.
  6. I've benefitted from many freebies from other members here, thanks! I have some excess seeds in my stash, but they don't do any good sitting in a box. I figure I can count on you guys to help me get them in the ground before they germinate from sitting in all the dust. I am offering 5 envelopes, and every member is eligible. There will be 5 "drawings" using a random number generator to select where they go. In 2012 zelly hooked me up with a bunch of free seed with my small purchase. Each envelope will contain 25+ seeds of the following: (SS02 x SS01) x (SS02 x SS01) PC Pachanoi x (SS02 x SS01) You may also choose 2 of the following options, (quantities) are limited so it is a first come basis. Each pack has 25+ seeds. Juuls Giant x Kimnach (1) Nicotina rustica (3) Heirloom Lettuce (3) Heirloom Spinach (3) Cherry Tomato (3) C. annum "Medusa" (2) To enter, post in this thread with your 2 choices. Your post # will be your entry #, so only your first post counts. Entry period ends 11:59:59 pm on Saturday, May 24th. Winners should be announced on the 25th.
  7. hookahhead

    Post a random picture thread

  8. hookahhead

    What are the signs of over-fertilizing Cacti?

    Superthrive is simply Vitamin B1 & Naphthaleneacetic acid
  9. hookahhead

    Looking for Pereskiopsis (US)

    I got you
  10. hookahhead

    Seed Giveaway (cacti & more)

    9! MrDoRight (no extras picked... +2) 14! Señor Jefferson (Juuls Giant x Kimnach and Nicotiana rustica) 15! doxneed2c-me (Heirloom Spinach + 1) 10! Herbalist (Nicotina rustica and C. annum "Medusa") 2! djmattz0r (Heirloom Spinach + 1) Choices remaining: Nicotina rustica (1) Heirloom Lettuce (3) Heirloom Spinach (1) Cherry Tomato (3) C. annum "Medusa" (1) Pm me your address and I will get them mailed out this week
  11. hookahhead

    Seed Giveaway (cacti & more)

    11 hours left, get in while you can!
  12. hookahhead

    1st Loph flowers < 6 months (16 @ 230 days)

    Sonnet # 17 Who will believe my verse in time to come, If it were filled with your most high deserts? Though yet heaven knows it is but as a tomb Which hides your life, and shows not half your parts. If I could write the beauty of your eyes, And in fresh numbers number all your graces, The age to come would say 'This poet lies; Such heavenly touches ne'er touched earthly faces.' So should my papers, yellowed with their age, Be scorned, like old men of less truth than tongue, And your true rights be termed a poet's rage And stretched metre of an antique song: But were some child of yours alive that time, You should live twice, in it, and in my rhyme. http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/sonnet/17 Flowers # 17 & 18 Sonnet # 18 Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed, And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed: But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st, So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/sonnet/18
  13. Seeds were San Juan and sown 9-26-13, and grafted around 10-18-13. These pictures were taken 1-2-14. Today I noticed 2-3 flower buds on one, and a single flower bud on its neighbor. I can't tell you how excited I am to see my first flower open! Pictures of the buds to come as soon as my batteries charge in my digicam. Thank you for providing me a place to share this moment!
  14. hookahhead

    Grafts -Photos & Updates

    Damn djmatt, I had heard of this but hadn't remembered about it until your post. Last year I found like 15 large elderberry bushes, when I went back to collect them for jam/wine the birds ate them all! This is a state game land, so I can't put netting over the trees. However, I could probably strategically place 1 or 2 of these
  15. hookahhead

    Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata

    Things are starting to "pick" up a little bit Almost missed some Ninja Ovoids hiding amongst the invaders ! Todays haul Some more king stropharia This thing fruits like this every year, it's awesome! Coexisting fungi...
  16. hookahhead

    Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata

    My first post in the mycology section! I have been cultivating/hunting fungi for over 10 years. I haven't had a cultivation project in a 2-3 years, but I still like to hunt every season. Luckily, my area is a great for fungi; we have old woods and a nice climate. I have found Reishi (G. lucidum), Morels (Morchella sp.), Shaggy mane (C. comatus), Horse mushroom (A. arvensis), Aspen oyster (P. poplins), Puffballs (Lycoperdon sp.), Yellow-gilled Gym (G. luteofolius) and last but not least Ovoids (P. ovoideocystidiata)! I started finding ovoids in 2005. They typically fruit the end of April to the end of june, and sometimes again in the fall. In the spring they typically are prolific producers, popping up after every rain, but in the fall I am lucky to find a few here and there. So far this year my season hasn't been the best. The weather here just hasn't been right, even the morels were late. Yesterday and today I started finding a few, and I am hoping they are just running a little behind schedule. These are a bit dried out, probably have been up 3-4 days. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psilocybe_ovoideocystidiata
  17. hookahhead

    Grafts -Photos & Updates

    You may want to consider something cheap like Birdcage Bridal Wedding Veil?
  18. Assuming that zircon6 is the owner of sacredcactus.com...I want my '15 minutes to complain" as well! Admittedly I'm a bit of a soil snob, thus I'd like to point out another discrepancy. http://www.sacredcactus.com/san_pedro_cactus_potting_soil.htm Or the alternative explanation? http://faq.gardenweb.com/faq/lists/organic/2002121127011493.html ****************************************************** So what do you think? (LOL) Happy Gardening!
  19. @Billy, Have you ever tried contacting the seller(s) about your interest in a larger cutting? If your willing to pay, I doubt they will care what size you want as long as they have it available. in the US 1ft is just kind of the "standard", but the rest of the world uses 30.48cm . Also instead of searching for "peruviana", try searching for named clones? I'm pretty sure IcarosDNA is still considered a true peru, but could be wrong. I have a 2ft rooted specimen that is very beautiful... I got it as a 1ft unrooted cutting last year . Finally, you have to remember that anyone selling anything on ebay is looking for money. Hopefully in the past two years you've built a bit of a good rep and made friends with a few other growers? These boards are great for getting what your looking for; the members tend to care more about plants than profit. I can't tell you how much free shit I've received over the years, though many collectors will still gladly accept cash Aside from a member here from TAS, there was another Cactus Kate in the US... Kate Jackson. This is from the sellers site I think? (http://www.sacredcactus.com/landscaping.htm)
  20. hookahhead

    Organic Garden Pests-Aside!

    We have a ton of deer ticks in my area (carry lyme). I even had to pull an engorged bastard off my left asscheek last fall . After my bite I was doing some reading, and read about "paralysis ticks" in AUS? I guess they're not joking when they say that everything is trying to kill you over there! Ticks & Mosquitos are the only two organisms I can think of that I truly despise, and would be happy to see go extinct . Damn blood-suckers. Anyhow, I now liberally apply an organic eucalyptus/lemongrass bugspray. I damn near bathe in it, which I certainly wouldn't do with DEET or permethrin. It has proven to be effective (for me) so far. I don't mind being covered in the stuff either, because as part of my routine I undress/check myself throughly/shower as soon as I get home. Sometimes I will plug the drain so that I can check if any ticks are floating in the water. I have found several briers/seeds this way, but not ticks yet Though it may take a LOT of lemongrass to produce enough oil that will cover a herd of cows?
  21. hookahhead

    Lophophora x Astrophytum

    I noticed in the auction it doesn't make any mention of it being a cross or a hybrid (actually doesn't make any reference to the plant at all!). I agree with hostilis, I think he listed it that way because there is a similarity.
  22. hookahhead

    Lophophora Cultivars

    I'd like to see your basis for this? I know of several people elsewhere who have received lots of plants from Thailand. Crested lophs, and other interesting astros, arios, etc....
  23. hookahhead

    Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata

    Thanks for some more help bud! Some old finds... See how similar they look? 2013 2012 The fungi is Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata and the insect is Apheloria virginiensis, which is a millipede that secretes cyanide compounds as a defense. They definitely looked poisonous so I didn't handle them. Fall 2012 Edit: It just started raining again
  24. hookahhead

    This section needs a "show wild finds" thread

    Tangich your the one who ID my shaggy mane, thanks again
  25. hookahhead

    This section needs a "show wild finds" thread

    Reishi (G. lucidum) from the same tree for the 3rd year 2013 2012 Some old edible finds... Russula sp. Shaggy mane (Coprinus comatus) Horse mushroom (Agaricus arvensis) Puffball (Lycoperdon sp.) *I fried the horse mushroom + puffballs with some onions and garlic. Served with some butterfly venison loin for a completely wild meal. Megacollybia rodmani (not edible, but still cool )