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Organic Garden Pests-Aside!

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It's well known that plants create compounds that inhibit/deter some pests. There are also commercial formulas that are marketed as organic pesticides. It's my intent to compile a list of some known plant/plant compounds that are have been shown to be effective against some common pests.

I have a similar thread "The Good, Bad, and Bugly" to discuss the use of other organisms that may be used in pest management.

Things to consider:

  • Availability
  • Application
  • Effectiveness
  • Target species
  • Phytotoxicity (kind of defeats the purpose to harm the plant)
  • Toxicity to other organisms [Think of the children (+ pets), we don't need any innocent victims in the "War on BUGS" :rolleyes:]

Here's a few to get us started...I was quite surprised how effective some of these were shown to be, often 90-100%

"Hey pests!" :wave-finger:

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Aphids:


APHIDICIDIAL ACTIVITY OF SEVEN ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE CABBAGE APHID, BREVICORYNE BRASSICAE L. (HEMIPTERA- APHIDIDAE).pdf

"The aphidicidial activities of seven essential oils were investigated against Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) under laboratory conditions. Applications of each tested essential oil significantly reduced the reproduction potential of the cabbage aphid and resulted in higher mortality. Quantity of applied essential oils also had an important effect on daily fecundity. In general, these seven applied essential oils can be considered as an important aphidicide to control aphid population, particularly J. excelsa, J. oxycedrus, L. nobilis and F. vulgare. "


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Fungus Gnats:


Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera- Sciaridae).pdf

"Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively."


Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera- Sciaridae).pdf

"Plant essential oils from 20 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activity against larvae of Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) by using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity (>90%) against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of caraway seed Carum carvi (L.)], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.], mandarine (Citrus reticulate Blanco), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), cade (Juniperus oxycedrus L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and thyme red [Thymus vulgaris (L.)] oils at 30 X 10-3 mg/1 air. Among them, caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red essential oils were highly effective against L. ingenua at 20 x 10(-3) mg/ml air. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 4, 9, 8, and 17 compounds from caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red oils, respectively. These compounds were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua, and compared with the toxicity of dichlorvos. Carvacrol, thymol, linalool, cuminaldehyde, p-cymen, terpinen-4-ol, and carvone was effective at 10 x 10(-3) mg/l. The insecticidal activity of dichlorvos was 60% at 10 x 10(-3) mg/ml. Effects of four selected plant essential oils on growth of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, also were investigated."


Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and monoterpenes against Lycoriella mali adults.pdf

"Toxicity of various essential oils and their volatile components against the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella mali was determined. The most potent fumigant toxicity was found in essential oil from thyme followed by the oils of sage, eucalyptus, and clove bud. a-Pinene was the most toxic fumigant compound found in thyme essential oil (LD50 1⁄4 9:85 ml=l air) followed by b-pinene (LD50 1⁄4 11:85 ml=l air) and linalool (LD50 1⁄4 21:15 ml=l air). The mixture of a- and b-pinene exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity than a- or b-pinene itself against the mushroom fly adults. Therefore, thyme essential oil, a- and b-pinene could be potent fumigants to control mushroom flies during mushroom cultivation. "


Fumigant Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera- Sciaridae).pdf

Plant essential oils from 21 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingenua Dufour (Diptera: Sciaridae) by using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Acorus gramineus Solander, Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, and Zanthoxylum piperitum De Candolle at 25 ug/ml air. S. tenuifolia oil showed the most potent insecticidal activity among the plant essential oils. At 12.5 ug/ml air concentration, S. tenuifolia oil caused 96.6% mortality, but mortality decreased to 60% at 3.125 ug/ml air. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identiÞcation of three major compounds from S. tenuifolia oil. These three compounds were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua and compared with the toxicity of dichlorvos. Pulegone was the most toxic, followed by menthone and limonene with LC50 values of 1.21, 6.03, and 15.42 ug/ml, respectively. LC50 of dichlorvos was 8.13 ug/ml. Effects of S. tenuifolia and its components on growth of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer also were investigated.


*Techniacally not a biopesticide.. But I certainly never thought of using Bounce Dryer Sheets :scratchhead:
BounceÒ Fabric Softener Dryer Sheets Repel Fungus Gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera- Sciaridae), Adults.pdf

"This study was conducted to assess the repellency of Bounce® original brand fabric softener dryer sheets against fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila(Diptera: Sciaridae), adults. For all five experiments conducted under laboratory conditions, fungus gnat adults collected in the sample compartments that included Bounce® original brand fabric softener dryer sheets ranged between 12% and 18% compared with the mean proportion of fungus gnat adults recovered from sample compartments that excluded dryer sheets, ranging in mean proportion from 33% to 48%. Chemical analysis using a steam distillation procedure to isolate volatile constituents found linalool as one of the major volatiles detected in the Bounce® original brand fabric softener dryer sheets. Additional constituents isolated were benzyl acetate, beta-citronellol, and hedione. Based on the results from our study, under laboratory conditions, Bounce® fabric softener dryer sheets do in fact repel B. sp. nr. coprophila adults."


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Nematodes:


Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oils and Their Components Against the Root-Knot Nematode.pdf

"Nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants were evaluated in vitro and in pot experiments. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1,000 μl/liter. At this concentration, most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching. Essential oils of Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha rotundifolia, and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. These oils and those from Origanum vulgare, O. syriacum, and Coridothymus capitatus mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg reduced the root galling of cucumber seedlings in pot experiments. The main components of these essential oils were tested for their nematicidal activity. Carvacrol, t-anethole, thymol, and (+)-carvone immobilized the juveniles and inhibited hatching at >125 μl/liter in vitro. Most of these components mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 75 and 150 mg/kg reduced root galling of cucumber seedlings. In 3-liter pot experiments, nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg, respectively. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides."


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Mealy Bugs:


Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus [size=4]http://www.insectscience.org/13.142/i1536-2442-13-142.pdf (too big to upload)

"The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thyme- leaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used."


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Mites:


Toxicity and Repellency Effects of Three Essential Oils against Tetranychus urticae.pdf

"Two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most injurious pests of fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants worldwide, both outdoor and indoors. Currently the main method of control of this pest is through application of pesticides which is mostly accompanied by the resistance of the pest against pesticide(s). The resurgence of resistant mite populations brings about further contamination of foodstuff and environment. Essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of plants may have the potential to be an alternative to synthetic pesticides, since they have been demonstrated to posses a wide range of bioactivities against insects and mites. So, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of essential oils extracted from three different medicinal plants namely: Mentha longifolia, Salvia officialis (both Lamiaceae) and Myrtus communis (Myrtaceae) against T. urticae. The LC50 values of essential oils of M. longifolia, M. communis, and S. officialis against T. urticae were 20.08, 53.22, 60.93 μl L-1 air, respectively. This shows that M. longifolia possesses the highest lethal activity whereas S. officialis the lowest. Also, essential oils of M. longifolia, M. communis, and S. officialis were demonstrated to possess repellency effect with ED50s of 147.47, 138.80 and 164.41, μl L-1 air, respectively. These data suggest that essential oils of all the three plants have the potential to be employed in the pest management programs designed for a control of T. urticae under greenhouse conditions."


Efficacy and Persistence of Rosemary Oil as an Acaricide Against Twospotted Spider Mite (Acari- Tetranychidae) on Greenhouse Tomato.pdf

"Efficacy of rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L., essential oil was assessed against twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), as well as effects on the tomato,Lycopersicum esculatum Mill., host plant and biocontrol agents. Laboratory bioassay results indicated that pure rosemary oil and EcoTrol (a rosemary oil-based pesticide) caused complete mortality of spider mites at concentrations that are not phytotoxic to the host plant. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is less susceptible to rosemary oil and EcoTrol than twospotted spider mite both in the laboratory and the greenhouse. Rosemary oil repels spider mites and can affect oviposition behavior. Moreover, rosemary oil and rosemary oil-based pesticides are nonpersistent in the environment, and their lethal and sublethal effects fade within 1 or 2 d. EcoTrol is safe to tomato foliage, flowers, and fruit even at double the recommended label rate. A greenhouse trial indicated that a single application of EcoTrol at its recommended label rate could reduce a twospotted spider mite population by 52%. At that rate, EcoTrol did not cause any mortality in P. persimilis nor did it affect their eggs. In general, EcoTrol was found to be a suitable option for small-scale integrated pest management programs for controlling twospotted spider mites on greenhouse tomato plants."


Toxicity of essential oil vapours to two greenhouse pests, Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn.pdf

"Essential oil vapours from Satureja hortensis L., Ocimum basilicum L. and Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiacae) were tested for their toxicities against the nymphs and adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and adults of Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). The amounts of essential oils applied were 1.56, 3.125, 6.25 and 12.5 μl in each of the desiccators with 4 l capacity, corresponding to 0.39, 0.782, 1.563 and 3.125 μl/l air. Although desirable insecticidal and acaricidal activities against both of these pest species were achieved with essential oils of the three plant species, S. hortensis was found to be the most effective, compared with the other two species. It can be concluded that essential oils from these three plants are potential control agents against T. urticae and B. tabaci in greenhouse conditions."


Insecticidal and acaricidal effect of three Lamiaceae plant essential oils against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn.pdf

"Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) are two economically important pests of greenhouse vegetables and ornamentals. The management is commonly done based on repetitive applications of chemicals, resulting in environmental pollution and resistance in pest population. In the present study, essential oil vapours from Micromeria fruticosa L., Nepeta racemosa L. and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) were tested for toxicities against the nymphs and/or adults of T. urticae and the adults of B. tabaci. Amounts of the essential oils applied were 2, 4, 6 and 8 μl in each of the desiccators with 4 l capacity, corresponding to 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 μl/l air. The essential oil vapours of all three plant species caused the highest mortality in 2 μl/l air doses and at 120 h of exposure in both of two pests species. In general, higher mortality was observed as the doses of essential oils and exposure period increased. T. urticae was more tolerant than B. tabaci at all doses of essential oils in all times. The data may suggest that essential oils of all three plants have potential to be used for management of T. urticae and B. tabaci pests in greenhouse conditions."


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Thrips:


Fumigant Toxicity of Plant Essential Oils to Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera- Thripidae) and Orius strigicollis (Heteroptera- Anthocoridae).pdf

"The fumigant toxicity of 92 plant essential oils to adult Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Orius strigicollis Poppius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) was examined by using a vapor phase toxicity bioassay and compared with those of dichlorvos, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and thiamethoxam, four commonly used insecticides. Responses varied according to oil type and insect species. As judged by 24-h LC50 values, pennyroyal oil (2.63 mg/liter air) was the most toxic fumigant and was 23.6-fold more toxic than dichlorvos (62.09 mg/liter air) against adultT. palmi. Potent fumigant toxicity (LC50, 11.03–19.21 mg/liter air) was observed in armoise, basil, cedarleaf, coriander, cypress, howood, hyssop, marjoram, myrtle, niaouli, rosemary, and sage (Dalmatia) oils. Neither emamectin benzoate, spinosad, nor thiamethoxam exhibited fumigant action. Against adult O. strigicollis, dichlorvos (LC50, 6.3 × 10−6 mg/liter air) was the most toxic fumigant, whereas the LC50 values of the 13 essential oils ranged from 17.29 to 158.22 mg/liter air.O. strigicollis was 1.4–22.1 times less susceptible than T. palmi to the essential oils. The essential oils described merit further study as potential fumigants for the control of T. palmi in greenhouses."


Repellency of Essential Oils to Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as Affected by Type of Oil and Polymer Release.pdf

"Eight essential oils [0.125–1.0% (vol:vol) in acetone] were separately deposited on leaf disks to evaluate their potential to repel western flower thrips, [/size]Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), adult females. Two of the best-performing essential oils were incorporated into polymer matrices of methyl cellulose or alginate [0.5 or 1% (wt:vol)] to verify the potential of the polymer to extend repellency of oils over time (24–120 h). Results showed that at a concentration of 0.5%, Thymus vulgaris L. (common thyme) and Satureja montana L. (winter savory) were the most repellent essential oils. For these two treatments, no western flower thrips were counted on treated leaf disks 60 min after the start of the test. T. serpyllum and O. compactumalso showed repellency values ≥90% at this concentration. With both the alginate and methyl cellulose polymers, the incorporation of polymers into treatment solutions containing 0.5% concentrations of S. montana and T. serpyllum resulted in higher repellency compared with treatment solutions lacking these polymers for a minimum of 3 d. For the alginate polymer, differences associated with polymer concentrations were most dramatic. High repellency was maintained for 4 d when a 0.5% concentration of the alginate was used in combination with a 0.5% concentration of S. montana. The use of repellent oils with polymers that extend their repellency may prove useful for both pre- and postharvest applications in flower crops."



Many more articles to go through...
essential oil against thrips


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Whitefly:


Toxicity of Plant Essential Oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera- Aleyrodidae).pdf

"A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 l/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control. "


Effects of plant essential oils on immature and adult sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B.pdf

"Effects of essential oils derived from garden thyme, Thymus vulgaris L., patchouli, Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth., and lemon-scent gum, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson, on mortality of eggs, first-instar nymphs, and pupae, and on adult oviposition, of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B were determined under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations of essential oils, 0.125%, 0.25% and 0.5% (v/v), were applied in contact toxicity experiments. In separate experiments, 0.5% essential oil treatment was tested for repellency. Greater mortality was observed with increasing dose of essential oils. No phytotoxicity was observed on plants treated with these essential oils. First-instar nymphs were more sensitive to essential oil treatments, compared with eggs and pupae. The greatest effect was found with essential oil extracted from T. vulgaris, which reduced the survival rate of B. tabaci by 73.4%, 79.0% and 58.2% after treatment of eggs, nymphs and pupae, respectively, as compared with controls. In no-choice tests, the cumulative survival rates of B. tabaci females treated with T. vulgaris, P. cablin and C. citriodora were 46.4%, 38.8% and 26.8% lower, respectively, as compared with controls. In choice tests, the mean numbers of eggs laid on P. cablin, T. vulgaris and C. citriodora oil-treated plants were 74.5%, 59.0% and 48.0% fewer, respectively, than on control plants. Based on this study, essential oil derived from T. vulgaris possessed the greatest contact toxicity, while P. cablin oil exerted the strongest repellency to B. tabaci. Hence, these two oils could be used as effective and environmentally sustainable bio-insecticides for the control of B. tabaci."

Additional articles found elsewhere in this post:
- Toxicity of essential oil vapours to two greenhouse pests, Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn.pdf
- Insecticidal and acaricidal effect of three Lamiaceae plant essential oils against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn.pdf

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Grain Beetles:


Fumigant toxicity of essential oils against four major stored-product insects .pdf

"The fumigant toxicity of 28 essential oils extracted from various spice and herb plants and some of their major constituents were assessed for adult coleopterans Rhyzopertha dominica, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Tribolium castaneum, and Sitophilus oryzae. Three groups of active materials were distinguished: (1) The compounds terpinen 4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and the essential oils of three-lobed sage, sage, bay laurel, rosemary, and lavender were most active against R. dominica; (2) The compounds linalool,α-terpineol, and carvacrol and the essential oils of oregano, basil, Syrian marjoram, and thyme were most active against O. surinamensis; and (3) the compound 1,8-cineole and the essential oils anise and peppermint were active against T. castaneum."


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Miscellaneous:


Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural pesticide.pdf

"Eucalyptus (family Myrtaceae), an Australian native, represented by around 700 species is a genus of tall, evergreen and magnificent trees cultivated world over for its oil, gum, pulp, timber, medicine and aesthetic value. Among the various wood and non-wood products, essential oil found in its foliage is the most important one and finds extensive use in food, perfumery and pharmaceutical industry. In addition, the oil possesses a wide spectrum of biological activity including anti-microbial, fungicidal, insecticidal/insect repellent, herbicidal, acaricidal and nematicidal. The present paper discusses this environmentally benign pest control using eucalyptus oils against bacteria, fungi, insects, nematodes, weeds and mites. The use of eucalyptus oil as a natural pesticide is of immense significance in view of the environmental and toxicological implications of the indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and overcoming/reducing the problem of increasing pest resistance."


*Great article that discusses several essential oils, and some of the legalities
BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES, DETERRENTS, AND REPELLENTS IN MODERN AGRICULTURE AND AN INCREASINGLY REGULATED WORLD.pdf

*Another article from the same author^
Plant essential oils for pest and disease management.pdf

"Certain essential plant oils, widely used as fragrances and #avors in the perfume and food industries, have long been reputed to repel insects. Recent investigations in several countries confirm that some plant essential oils not only repel insects, but have contact and fumigant insecticidal actions against speci"c pests, and fungicidal actions against some important plant pathogens. As part of an e!ort aimed at the development of reduced-risk pesticides based on plant essential oils, toxic and sublethal e!ects of some essential oil terpenes and phenols have been investigated using the tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) as model pest species. In this paper I review (i) the range of biological activities of essential oils and their constituents; (ii) their toxicity and proposed mode-of-action in insects; (iii) their potential health and environmental impacts as crop protectants; and (iv) commercialization of pesticides based on plant essential oils. 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved."



*Handbook of Vegetable Pests. Great book, though not necessarily focused on biopesticides (too big to upload)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/36539756/Handbook-of-Vegetable-Pests#download


*An entire book on the subject
biopesticides- Pest management and regulation.pdf

"Biological controls that utilize natural predation, parasitism or other natural mechanisms, is an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical pesticides. Chemical pesticide methods are becoming less readily available due to increasing resistance problems and the prohibition of some substances. This book addresses the challenges of insufficient information and imperfectly understood regulatory processes in using biopesticides. It takes an interdisciplinary approach providing internationally comparative analyses on the registration of biopesticides and debates future biopesticide practices."



*Covers several pests, commercially available products, and phytotoxicity
Effect of Commercially Available Plant-Derived Essential Oil Products on Arthropod Pests.pdf

"Plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from Environmental Protection Agency registration under section 25 {B} of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. However, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. In fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not been subject to rigorous evaluation, and there is minimal scientific information or supporting data associated with efficacy against arthropod pests. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to determine the efficacy and phytotoxicity of an array of plant-derived essential oil products available to consumers on arthropod pests including the citrus mealybug,Planococcus citri (Risso); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype, Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius); and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Although the products Flower Pharm (cottonseed, cinnamon, and rosemary oil) and Indoor Pharm (soybean, rosemary, and lavender oil) provided >90% mortality of citrus mealybug, they were also the most phytotoxic to the coleus,Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants. Both GC-Mite (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil) and Bugzyme (citric acid) were most effective against the twospotted spider mite (≥90% 0ortality). However, SMC (canola, coriander oil, and triethanolamine), neem (clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil), and Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) provided >80% mortality. Monterey Garden Insect Spray, which contained 0.5% spinosad, was most effective against western flower thrips with 100% mortality. All the other products evaluated failed to provide sufficient control of western flower thrips with <30% mortality. In addition, the products Pest Out (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil), Bang (Pipereaceae), and Fruit & Vegetable Insect Spray (rosemary, cinnamon, clove oil, and garlic extract) had the highest flower (transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii [H. Bolus ex Hook.f]) phytotoxicity ratings (≥4.5 of 5) among all the products. None of the plant-derived essential oil products provided sufficient control of sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype or green peach aphid 7, 14, and 21 d after application. Furthermore, the products Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) and Sharpshooter (sodium lauryl sulfate and clove oil) were phytotoxic to the poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch, plants. This study is one of the first to quantitatively demonstrate that commercially available plant-derived essential oil products vary in their effectiveness against certain arthropod pests stated on the label and are phytotoxic."



*This link provides several articles that suggest anise seed is effective against mosquitos, fungi, and bacteria.
http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/fighting-fungus-cleansing-with-anise-seed/

APHIDICIDIAL ACTIVITY OF SEVEN ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE CABBAGE APHID, BREVICORYNE BRASSICAE L. (HEMIPTERA- APHIDIDAE).pdf

Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera- Sciaridae).pdf

Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oils and Their Components Against the Root-Knot Nematode.pdf

Effect of Commercially Available Plant-Derived Essential Oil Products on Arthropod Pests.pdf

BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES, DETERRENTS, AND REPELLENTS IN MODERN AGRICULTURE AND AN INCREASINGLY REGULATED WORLD.pdf

biopesticides- Pest management and regulation.pdf

Fumigant toxicity of essential oils against four major stored-product insects .pdf

Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural pesticide.pdf

Fumigant Toxicity of Plant Essential Oils to Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera- Thripidae) and Orius strigicollis (Heteroptera- Anthocoridae).pdf

Toxicity of Plant Essential Oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera- Aleyrodidae).pdf

Efficacy and Persistence of Rosemary Oil as an Acaricide Against Twospotted Spider Mite (Acari- Tetranychidae) on Greenhouse Tomato.pdf

Toxicity and Repellency Effects of Three Essential Oils against Tetranychus urticae.pdf

Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and monoterpenes against Lycoriella mali adults.pdf

Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera- Sciaridae).pdf

Plant essential oils for pest and disease management.pdf

BounceÒ Fabric Softener Dryer Sheets Repel Fungus Gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera- Sciaridae), Adults.pdf

Fumigant Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera- Sciaridae).pdf

Repellency of Essential Oils to Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as Affected by Type of Oil and Polymer Release.pdf

Toxicity of essential oil vapours to two greenhouse pests, Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn.pdf


Insecticidal and acaricidal effect of three Lamiaceae plant essential oils against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn.pdf

Effects of plant essential oils on immature and adult sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B.pdf

Edited by hookahhead
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Some info from the EPA on Biopesticides (http://www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/biopesticides/regtools/25b_list.htm)

Minimum Risk Pesticides

Minimum risk pesticides are a special class of pesticides that are not subject to federal registration requirements because their ingredients, both active and inert, aredemonstrably safe for the intended use. These Web pages provide detailed information for pesticide companies who want to register minimum risk pesticide products.
Active Ingredients Exempted Under 25 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, & Rodenticide Act

* indicates exempt active ingredients that are also exempt from pesticide residue tolerance requirements
Castor oil (U.S.P. or equivalent)* Linseed oil

Cedar oil Malic acid
Cinnamon and cinnamon oil* Mint and mint oil
Citric acid* Peppermint and peppermint oil*
Citronella and Citronella oil 2-Phenethyl propionate (2-phenylethyl propionate)
Cloves and clove oil* Potassium sorbate*
Corn gluten meal* Putrescent whole egg solids
Corn oil* Rosemary and rosemary oil*
Cottonseed oil* Sesame (includes ground sesame plant) and sesame oil*
Dried Blood Sodium chloride (common salt) *
Eugenol Sodium lauryl sulfate
Garlic and garlic oil* Soybean oil
Geraniol* Thyme and thyme oil*
Geranium oil White pepper
Lauryl sulfate Zinc metal strips (consisting solely of zinc metal and impurities)
Lemongrass oil

Edited by hookahhead
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I think one of the most interesting aspects of this research, is that several studies have been focused on the "Fumigant Toxicity" of these oils. It's quite surprising that many are shown to be effective in a little as a few parts per million (ppm). For simplicity 1 ppm = 1mg/l = 1ug /ml = 1000ug/L , or use a ppm conversion

So how is this significant to us?

Well, I believe it to be very beneficial for those of us that grow indoors or confined spaces such as a smaller greenhouse. Essentially, what the research suggests is that several of these oils are effective against pests simply by being "in the air". This means that direct application to the plant/growing medium is unnecessary, and likely a lower risk of harmful effects. Another advantage, because gaseous molecules permeate through the grow space, there is little worry of having few lone survivors hiding in those hard to reach areas.

Fortunately, essential oils tend to be very volatile, and it shouldn't be hard to reach adequate concentrations with something as simple as a home-made reed diffuser. A liquid becomes more volatile when the temperature is increased, so placing them near your lights will cause them to "evaporate" more.


The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality.pdf


Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey, were tested. Specific aromatic compounds of interest were sampled during evaporating the essential oils, and analyzed by GC-MS. Indoor carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and particulate matters (PM10) were measured by real-time, continuous monitors, and duplicate samples for airborne fungi and bacteria were collected in different periods of the evaporation. Indoor CO (average concentration 1.48 vs. 0.47 ppm at test vs. background), CO2 (543.21 vs. 435.47 ppm), and TVOCs (0.74 vs. 0.48 ppm) levels have increased significantly after evaporating essential oils, but not the PM10 (2.45 vs. 2.42 ppm). The anti-microbial activity on airborne microbes, an effect claimed by the use of many essential oils, could only be found at the first 30–60min after the evaporation began as the highest levels of volatile components in these essential oils appeared to emit into the air, especially in the case of tea tree oil. High emissions of linalool (0.092–0.787 mg/m^3), eucalyptol (0.007–0.856 mg/m^3), D- limonene (0.004–0.153 m/ m^3), r-cymene (0.019–0.141 mg/m^3), and terpinene-4-ol-1 (0.029–0.978 mg/m^3), all from the family of terpenes, were observed, and warranted for further examination for their health implications, especially for their potential contribution to the increasing indoor levels of secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the presence of ozone.

However, I haven't come across this approach to pest control suggested elsewhere before?

Therefore, I would encourage all of you to participate in discussing the potential of this novel idea further!

The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality.pdf

Edited by hookahhead
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The problem with growing plants inside are the swarms of parasitic insects, I like the idea of modifying the environment to hopefully :scratchhead: reach a balance,

An artificial mini eco system, I have even considered introducing a German waste nest (real pest) bloody sting hurts too and they attack in groups, but I figure out of the way, up high, or better still on the outside of the house with a wasp door I can open/close remotely, the rest of the time they can fly around the garden.. They would pollinate and eat a lot of the pest's.

I introduce whitefly wasp and scarid fly mite and any good guys I come across ladybirds, praying mantis, dragon fly.

I like the idea of introducing volatile oils by having aromatic plants mix in with all the others, rather than a mono culture. I can't use toxins as they kill the good guys and resets the balance. In desperation I will remove and wash and hose down a plant, but thats time consuming and temporary, but it will save a plant from death..Always have a garlic toxic plant soapy watery mix on hand with a paint brush for washing the scales off. Easy but more work.

I need to introduce more aromatic herbs, pennyroyal may be worth a try, planting a path of it and Roman chamomile, thyme. A lot easier than the concrete and wooden paths I had planed and can pick up the condensation drippingfrom the roof purlins.

I don't feel that it will kill the pest just make it more of a hassle to exist, and hopefully bring number down.

(sounds like fascism lol )

Low maintenance. Its so very hard..

Edited by Dreamwalker
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Cleaned up the formatting a bit, and added 4 more articles. :)

  • Repellency of Essential Oils to Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as Affected by Type of Oil and Polymer Release.pdf
  • Toxicity of essential oil vapours to two greenhouse pests, Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn.pdf
  • Insecticidal and acaricidal effect of three Lamiaceae plant essential oils against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn.pdf
  • Effects of plant essential oils on immature and adult sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B.pdf

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If you can come up with a 100% effective Cattle Tick and Buffalo Fly treatment using these natural insecticides you could be a billionaire $$$$$$$$

In Australia at the moment all the currently marketed insecticides for ticks( Current insecticides used) are reducing in effectiveness due to tolerances yet increasing dosages then reduces safe human consumption. This is expected to have devastating effects on the grass fed cattle industry in many parts of the country.

So why on Earth can we not just spray the cattle with Lemongrass and Cedarwood Oil?

Or dip them in Corn oil and Cloves?

Pests have never been able to build tolerance to freshly prepared plant extracts! (Proven)

Ohhhh Nooo! That would mean that just 1 acre of land planted with herbs could see a heard of 200 cattle, tick free naturally! I mean Free :blink:

Maybe a lemongrass hedge will keep the neighbours ticks out too. :worship:

Sorry Dreamwalker, this is for, before we reach balance and low maintenance, but I like your thoughts.

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We have a ton of deer ticks in my area (carry lyme). I even had to pull an engorged bastard off my left asscheek last fall :blush: . After my bite I was doing some reading, and read about "paralysis ticks" in AUS? I guess they're not joking when they say that everything is trying to kill you over there! Ticks & Mosquitos are the only two organisms I can think of that I truly despise, and would be happy to see go extinct :angry: . Damn blood-suckers.

Anyhow, I now liberally apply an organic eucalyptus/lemongrass bugspray. I damn near bathe in it, which I certainly wouldn't do with DEET or permethrin. It has proven to be effective (for me) so far. I don't mind being covered in the stuff either, because as part of my routine I undress/check myself throughly/shower as soon as I get home. Sometimes I will plug the drain so that I can check if any ticks are floating in the water. I have found several briers/seeds this way, but not ticks yet :)

Though it may take a LOT of lemongrass to produce enough oil that will cover a herd of cows?

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A lot of testing would need to be done to invent this new combination of herbs and oils for safe, mass use and by then it would be called Flagloline and be twice the price of current dips and sprays and no longer a natural organic compound capable of safe biodegradation. Just need a snake repellant now :scratchhead:

Some dog shampoos have these oils and they are very effective. I use coconut oil, lavender, lemongrass, oregano, cedarwood and tea tree pure essential oils, mixed together and apply to dogs paws, belly, ear tips for effective allround anti parasitic and they smell great. No withholding period here! :)

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Edited by woodwoman
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Awesome thread, looks like lots of effort went into getting this info, thanks hookahhead! :wink:

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I have heard from a bunch of people who do experimental growing with electricity that plants grown in an electric field resist or actively deter a number of pests ranging from aphids, to mites to even mosquitoes.

(if interested in links to research let me know and I can dig em up)

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