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Alchemica

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Everything posted by Alchemica

  1. I feel the succulent dimension holds an interesting element in potentially having more therapeutically useful "in the real world" dimensions than more commonly touted plant medicines for their often more gentle but occasionally empathogenic edge. Also, the combination of often pro-cognitive (PDE4 inhibition seen with mesembrine-type alkaloids) with potent antidepressant effects meets an unmet demand. Part 1: Background and 'citizen analysis' using readily available materials Some Aizoaceae have been analysed [1]: I wanted to see if it was feasible to get some rough idea of the phytochemistry of a plant using only readily available materials eg. making it suitable for citizen science. I've been curious about simple TLC and paper chromatography as tools, particularly how feasible 'citizen TLC analysis' of plants is using a suitable paper, readily available solvent systems and simple visualisation techniques, compared to more conventional TLC. Can simple maceration of a medicinal plant in a readily available benignish solvent, concentration, spotting on common craft materials, developing the plate and OTC visualisation give some rough idea of the phytochemistry of a medicinal plant? Sceletium has in the past been analysed via conventional TLC [2, 3] and more advanced techniques [4] It took about 30 trials to find a readily available solvent system and semi-suitable paper - after many failed attempts, I found an 'etch art paper' that seemed the best I could find. I'm still to follow up with confirmation on silica TLC plates but it seems to give *a very rough idea* Sceletium tortuosum (unfermented) was used as a reference. This gives a main compound Rf = 0.5-0.54 on the craft paper. I particularly wanted to research D. bosseranum and Trichodiadema stellatum Method: Sample preparation: Samples were dehydrated at 70 deg. C and powdered. The samples were macerated in isopropanol. If no phenolic constituents were expected, NaOH q.s. was used to basify, otherwise basified with ammonia solution. The isopropanol solutions were concentrated to a small sample. Samples were spotted onto a plate, either a suitable craft paper, or silica gel plates. Acetone was used to elute the plate and I2 vapour (from OTC tincture) used as a visualisation technique. Crude technique - Craft Paper Note: this technique is limited in effectiveness and I suggest if you're that keen to play around with something like this, I'd suggest you just stick with silica gel plates to save A LOT of hassle. Delosperma bosseranum Sceletium tortuosum (unfermented) was compared to D. bosseranum. A compound with the same Rf as Sceletium was noted along with other constituents. Trichodiadema stellatum (syn. barbatum) Sceletium tortuosum (unfermented) was compared to D. bosseranum. A compound with the same Rf as Sceletium was noted along with other constituents. Mesembryanthemum cordifolium (syn. Aptenia cordifolia) This has been studied and seems to contain 4,5-dihydro-4’-O-methylsceletenone and 4’-O-methylsceletenone along with flavanoids, tannins, phenols, saponins, and cinnamic acid derivatives (and esters) The characteristic Sceletium constituent was absent in these but other different compounds were present. Will follow up with more conventional silica TLC which will hopefully have more easily reproducible results
  2. I've been busy expanding on this research, hopefully it's of interest/inspiration to others: So far the research extends to: Citizen TLC Phytochemical Screening of Diverse Mesembryanthemums https://pdfhost.io/v/gugGrtnCj_ Phytochemistry of Aptenia https://pdfhost.io/v/dq6SpR9nM_aptenia Citizen TLC analysis of marketed commercial Sceletium tortuosum products: https://pdfhost.io/v/SVvI3PQwb_TLC_commercial_sceletium_produc Using TLC to guide discovery of hypothetical new Kanna substitutes https://pdfhost.io/v/A4u.08qVQ_kanna_substitutes_TLC Utilising yeasts to encourage the bioconversion of mesembrine-type alkaloids yeasts to encourage bioconversi | PDF Host Initial TLC study of an uncharacterised Sceletium ('Little Karoo') https://pdfhost.io/v/.ASjnTMdo_Initial_TLC_study_of_an_unchara Sceletium Chemotypes - Characterisation of a 'Superior Quality' Sceletium product sceletium chemotypes | PDF Host Reagent analysis of phytochemicals - application to Sceletium spp and Mesembryanthemums. Reagent analysis of phytochemicals - application to Sceletium spp and Mesembryanthemums. | PDF Host
  3. Bought myself a new ally, a Magnolia grandiflora tree. The flower contains liriodenine, anonaine, dehydroremerine (0.52% total alkaloids) Leaf from the flowering plant contains anonaine, remerine, liriodenine and rutine (0.54 % total alkaloids) It also contains essential oils 0.58 % Anonaine, the principle leaf alkaloid displayed affinity of 0.8 µM, the same order as the reference compounds nomifensine (0.2 µM), but more potent than amineptine and dexamphetamine at DAT. The oxoaporphine liriodenine was virtually devoid of activity as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. It also has affinity for 5-HT1A and α1 adrenergic receptor affinity. Although not overly potent, studies suggest they are α1A antagonists, as is demonstrated by the vasorelaxant responses. The flowers are edible and said to have an exquisite flavour and are used as a spice and condiment. My flowers were dried and aged on the plant so lost most of that but still interesting flavours. Volatile constituents are mainly monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. Look forward to a tea from the fresh flowers. Interestingly, the crude extract of the seeds contains 10% 4-O-methylhonokiol. It is also found in the bark. This is a potent CB2 receptor ligand which readily crosses the blood brain barrier and attenuates memory impairment. In addition to anonaine, liriodenine etc, the leaves contain sesquiterpene lactones like parthenolide which has intriguing activity but low bioactivity. Please be aware that the toxicity of the leaf material is unestablished while the constituents are more characterised. Well the Magnolia flower tea was interesting tastewise maybe a slight subjective uplift. Something spiritual to it but I wanted more DAT/5-HT1A action. Chewed through a whole flower as tea. Wanted to develop a bit of a relationship with this plant, see if it could be a good functional motivational aid, so I tried 2 tsp dried leaf material on top. Struggling to find info on doses but the same alkaloids at 5-10mg/kg in mice exhibited antidepressant activity. For me, the upper alkaloid dose would be about 80mg alkaloids in human equivalent doses. Interesting resonance, seems somewhat useful for doing things. Soft energetic resonance, seems superior to lotus/lily. Not really stimulatory but functional it seems. 3 tsp of crushed dried leaf: need all the uplift I can get. There's something but it's not pushy stimulant wise, feels clean, a focusing energy but soft. Started another day with leaves 17g dried, ~ 90mg alkaloids. I had to have an early sleep on it, it seems to have some waves of calming sedation for me anyway. Then it picked up into something more 'wanna do stuff'. Followed that up the next day with 17g and I had quite a good day. I tend to find stimulants calming and de-scattering so results may vary. I do like the magnolia leaf at decent doses but I'm going to leave my experiments there, let my ally grow before I find it too useful. Wouldn't say it's going to make a magnolia crack but still interesting. If I find a large M. grandiflora, I might make magnolia leaf extract, the tea is quite unpleasant and it would be nice to have a concentrated extract. Anyone done any trials themselves?
  4. I've been re-exploring this in my research lately. All in all, even I'm now hesitant to explore this one personally due to odd effects longer-term on lowering dopamine and the fact that it has not been widely used/marketed by others suggests there may be need for caution Exploring the Magnoliaceae.pdf anonaine-final.pdf I came to the conclusion:
  5. Alchemica

    scutellaria seeds seeked

    I have Scutellaria lateriflora and S. baicalensis seedlings if they are of use to you (can spare one of each), just get them a bit bigger on the heat mat before they'd be good to send. I'll keep you in the loop. They tend to die back, the S. lateriflora in particular down here over winter so getting them a bit bigger on the heat mat will help them along Otherwise I've ordered from Skullcap seeds (happyvalleyseeds.com.au) Skullcap Baical seeds (happyvalleyseeds.com.au)
  6. While the Sceletium has been showing continued promise for modulating mood and other dimensions, I've been experiencing significant and quite debilitating catatonic features for a long time and poor sleep quality but was personally hesitant to initiate the conventional lorazepam benzodiazepine therapy for catatonia due to the addictive nature of BZDs and past issues with addiction. Decided to try higher dose baicalin extract and akin to the rapid resolution of catatonia seen with a lorazepam-challenge, there was robust rapid acute resolution of the catatonic features, agitation and somewhat improved sleep quality. Just able to feel slightly chill for once. Very early days but it seems to be quite useful and also stabilising for one's mental state. The improvement of catatonic features was noted on second dose etc but as the features have been ingrained quite heavily, there's occasional return of posturing etc Subjective downsides: - waking up in the morning is harder, significant cognitive clouding etc (anything even slightly sedative does this to me) - reduced CNS arousal negatively impacts mental state The baicalin also shows diverse additional features over lorazepam that intrigue me and are relevant to my situation. Found about 1/2 tsp of 85% baicalin was sufficient S. baicalensis and it's primary active constituent baicalin has diverse pharmacological properties. In particular, baicalin seems to have promising CNS activity [1]. Antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like properties (the latter mediated through the activation of benzodiazepine binding site of GABAA receptors) Inhibits prolyl oligopeptidase dose-dependently, having potential benefits for schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and related neuropsychiatric diseases [2]. Can potentially be used to treat dopaminergic dysfunction-associated CNS diseases (incl. neurodegenerative and ADHD). It's able to protect dopaminergic neurons and modulate brain dopamine levels, thus serving as a potentially effective novel treatment for ADHD [3]. In schizophrenia, addition of baicalin (1.5g/day) to atypical antipsychotics led to greater improvements in both primary and secondary negative symptoms than those treated with antipsychotics alone - seems to have efficacy for predominant negative symptoms and in improving cognitive function [4]. Able to facilitate remyelination in various models of CNS disorders and suppress neuroinflammation [5] Baicalin can: - pass through the blood–brain barrier - stimulate neurogenesis - promote neural differentiation and inhibit neuronal apoptosis - inhibit neuroinflammation and oxidative stress - promote CNS myelin repair Shown to be relatively nontoxic when given orally
  7. Lately I've been comparing the subjective efficacy of S. tortuosum as an antidepressant vs high dose SSRIs and interestingly that has opened up a dimension where I've seen it's a personally effective tool for encouraging psycho-social-spiritual personal growth and deeper self-inquiry Case Study - The Subjective Clinical, Psychotherapeutic and Spiritual Benefits of Sceletium tortuosum in severe mental illness.pdf Full write up: The concept that beyond the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects with cognitive enhancement noted in clinical studies, there may be some merits for psychotherapeutic use has been suggested by Nigel Gericke where he states it may have benefits for • facilitating psychotherapy • facilitating meditative and spiritual states I've noted: - Prosocial and emotional enhancements - encourages a feeling mode, anxiolysis facilitates direct and open communication with others - Contact with the present moment as 'still', improved cognitive clarity and suppression of mind chatter opens a state more conducive to learning a more meditative state - Acute mood improvements suppress downward negative emotional spirals of anger, blame, self-hatred etc into a more accepting embrace of peaceful acceptance of the moment - Feelings of some elements of spirituality, eg embrace of more self-transcendent states, gentle ego-dissolution, positive emotions encourage a more open mental process of appreciating beauty, the uplift of emotions and cognitive fluidity can broaden-and-build mental states of openness to experience, more profound shifts in mental state can encourage consideration of the Divine in one's life It's been interesting simply freeing my way of feeling and thinking a bit, the Kanna seemingly serving as a mild empathogenic ego-dissolution tool that is dose-dependently gentle in action, which has clinical merits over more rapid and robust ego-dissolution seen with 5-HT2AR agonists etc (personally more in line with an empathogenic action), particularly for fragile mental states that may be susceptible to more pathological hallucinations. It's also very emotionally friendly as in it encourages a heart-centred way of thinking, feeling and being Some subjective clinical benefits I've observed in the reasonably short time period: Gradual but robust improvement in mood which is once again quite dose dependent. Greater cognitive clarity, reductions in cognitive complaints, intrusive lines of thinking and improved time that I can focus on tasks, improved receptiveness to the world around me, rather than being stuck in my own mind A sense of pleasure and enjoyment, currently fairly restricted to very simple activities like movement and dance, 'drumming', feeling rhythm more deeply but very gradually a return to enjoyment of more mundane everyday tasks, cooking, mowing the lawn This embrace of the now as more pleasurable, valued and meaningful has somewhat hindered the desire for more goal-directed tasks but I still feel it's personally valuable to have an improved hedonic baseline in the moment that is not so dependent on goal-directed activity Improved emotional tone and states of feeling over obsessive analytical thinking Reductions in sensorimotor stereotypies and aberrant ASD related behavious which are slowly being embraced by a more free flowing way of movement through life. Whereas I always felt held down by life, I've been able to hold my head higher and put my chin up and be more comfortable in myself and that is slowly reflected in my body posture Transient states of self-transcendence and spiritual moments, from embracing a more present moment way of thinking to even embracing an all-loving sense of something greater than me in the universe, or higher power particularly within nature. I've felt there be this all-encompassing sense of light in the darkness, the need to pray and hold myself in devotion to such etc. Robust anxiolysis and greater inner calm and peacefulness in my mind, rather than being at war with myself which is slowly reflecting in my ability to have more positive social relationships Reductions in positive symptoms - AVHs have drastically reduced in intensity (despite resisting conventional antipsychotics) from harsh, persecutory and denigratory to a generally more absent status and slowly less pathological self-talk has become softer, quieter and easier to deal with Reductions in agitation and catatonic posturing A sense of stronger healthier self-concept and self-empowerment, the ability to be more in control of my mental state rather than 'driven by pathology' I've found that quite often it's our mind's own rigidity and ego barriers that are constraining our consciousness to realms of pain and suffering. A heavily ingrained 'allegiance to pain and suffering' seems to be one of the significant cognitive biases that our brains can be pinned down into low states of consciousness by. By simply loosening those cognitive constraints in a more loving, gentle, kind and spiritualised direction, rigid loops of dysfunctional thinking patterns can slowly be loosened or literally blown away, freeing up new ways of thinking that may be less fear-based, pathological, freer, more loving and kinder to ourselves and others While there is the need to pathologise some aspects of mental functioning, too heavy an ingrained thought pattern of pathology and 'biomedical fixing' constrains you to a dimension where it is always heavy and dark. If you see the beauty, feel the love and peace, cultivate the compassion and kindness towards yourself you can seemingly slowly slay the demons in your mind - I like the line "the monsters in my head are scared of love". It's not an overnight process and it takes lots of repetition to stabilise a more positive growth mentality but it's worth it, and slowly that inner work has the chance to make life more easy to deal with each day I was inspired to create this "Devotion to the Heart and Light' by some of the experiences
  8. Currently I'm finding I still have to not expect the kanna to do all the heavy lifting mood wise, it's really a tool that opens a potentiality for better states but without following through with behavioural activation/valued action you rapidly can sink back into the abyss. With a disability, I find the whole movement/dance/loosing your sh*t aspect nicely therapeutic to couple with the kanna as it's cognitively non-demanding and easily achievable behavioural activation at home that is not dependent on others. It's a sense of aliveness to life. Other areas I'm focusing on are: Connection. Improving some social engagements Independence. Gaining small steps of growth in self-care and independence doing very simple tasks myself Meaningful Pursuits Growth - for me, currently just trying to be content, happy "Dance is a pleasurable and captivating activity that involves motor, cognitive, visuospatial, social, and emotional engagement. Although practiced for thousands of years in rituals and as a leisure activity, the long-term effects of systematic dance on cognition, and brain structure and function are not well understood." Currently, there is increasing interest in dance as a therapeutic intervention for various clinical groups, ranging from developmental disorders, to neurological disorders such as schizophrenia (Martin et al., 2016) and mood disorder, neuromotor disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, to dementia prevention and management. Movement Medicine The efficacy of dance lies in its cognitive-affective-sensorimotor power to effect change’ and includes all aspects of the body-heartmind-spirit continuum. This continuum includes, transcends and bridges movement between the self, humanity, the world and divinity While for some it seem effortless, for some people it actually takes as much (or even more) courage and effort to choose an attitude of happiness, pleasure and gratitude as it does to let go of difficult emotions. It often requires an active choice, which needs to be renewed and renewed, instead of unconsciously and habitually emphasising struggle, suffering and hardship. It offers qualities such as: - being wholly present in the moment - an absence of thoughts - a sense of expansion or dissolving into the cosmos - distortion of time and space; experiences of non-duality - and a lost sense of self or ego If one can keep dancing through fear, the unknown, anxiety, avoidance and resistance, and eventually come out ‘on the other side’. Life seemingly becomes easier, and therefore they are willing to ‘invest’ in that reward. ‘Surviving’ these challenges often eventually results in increased self-confidence through knowing from experience that one is able to handle more than one initially thought. This is comparable to a ‘spiritual emergence’. Through the embodied experience of this cycle of descent, crisis and emergence, spirituality becomes a lived and living experience, rather than an abstract, external, metaphysical and transcendent concept Both the ‘feel-good feelings’ and the reward of emerging from a ‘dark night of the soul’ seem to stimulate happiness and well-being in general. One can consciously make an effort to increase and spread this zest for life. The psychological "holdings" in the body as the result of traumas, poor posture, or stress can be released, lulling the person into a "hookup" [peaceful, meditative state]:- given the choice between old painful "holdings" and new, freer movements, the unconscious will automatically choose the latter By moving the body, restrictive patterns can be changed, promoting relaxation and mental clarity. Also exploring therapeutic Drumming: Normally I'm an extreme stereotypic stimmer (flapping), which is one thing that kind of has no 'end result of health' associated with it, you can get worked up/modulate arousal levels but it doesn't have any personal sense of peace, connection, healing etc associated with it. The next level lately has been to embrace super unco 'drumming', which I've tried to get into a long time ago but I couldn't even manage to sense rhythm back then where my head was. Lately, I've been trying it again, learning to crank some techno and kill the rhythm fast as I can (starting just simply, tapping a table). I can attest, it does something quite nice to your mental-emotional-spiritual state, particularly at high bpm. Found it therapeutic enough that I want to ingrain it as a new habit over flapping, so whipped up a $0 drum from an old indoor planter and made it more interesting (second pic). "Drumming produces an altered state of consciousness and an experience of a rush of energy from the vibrations, with physical stimulation producing emotional release" My $0 drum It's able to calm one down and help a person deal with stress in their lives. “Drumming helps them to experience a kind of peacefulness and provides a spiritual learning context [potential to access a “higher power” and reestablish connections with their “natural selves.”]. Learning to 'drum' leads to positive changes in brain function and behaviour among those with mental illness [1] autistic people [2] and in addiction [3]. Improvements in: - hedonia (natural pleasurable experiences) - agency - accomplishment - engagement (focus and flow) - defining the self/self-awareness - produces the sense of connectedness - improved synchronicity between brain regions responsible for inhibitory control, which prevents impulsivity. - improvements to social skills and social well-being - reduces hyperactivity and attentional difficulties - enhances hypnotic susceptibility, increases relaxation, and induces shamanic experiences - release of emotional trauma - addresses self-centeredness, isolation, and alienation - enhanced sensorimotor coordination and integration [1] https://doi.org/10.1080%2F17482631.2018.1484219 [2] https://neurosciencenews.com/drumming-asd-attention-20802/ [3] https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.93.4.647 "
  9. True but mood was too low to not quickly implement something as an option for mood enhancement. I wouldn't be surprised if the removal of the SSRI allowed a fuller range of feelings to emerge - removing the SSRI-induced emotional blunting and reducing induced akathisia - but during the week of washout, all emotions were extremely negative, it wasn't until the kanna was implemented that gradually positive emotions started to build. There were a few days of extreme emotional lability on the transition and after a couple of weeks the moods began to not be so volatile. I described a more longer-term leveling out of the effects of the kanna where "rather than the more acute robust uplift and transformative effects initially, almost a sort of tolerance to the effect but with improved baseline mental states" was noted "
  10. I've been exploring mainly plain (?fermented) powdered raw herb (source Koda, sometimes Medicine Garden), at doses from a 1/4 tsp up and using it as added PRN as needed. Some of the other extracts on ebay etc seem potentially questionable I used a cold-turkey 5.5 half-life washout of the maximal dose SSRI and straight onto the kanna, just using plain herb. Naturally, the washout was really unpleasant but was only ~week to rough out which is easy enough when mood has been dysphorically shitty long-term. The first few days on the kanna were not overly remarkable but slowly an organic contentedness started to build which was solid basis for broadening and building other states from. Social things were still very challenging, probably harder during the transition which is understandable when you're in a state of change. Some of the case-study literature (as per article in original post's link) suggests therapeutic benefits in MDD, anxiety, personality disorders etc may be seen in the 10-14 day period Still good days and bad days but at least there are good days to build from
  11. Alchemica

    Syrian rue seed wanted

    PM'd
  12. Anyone used the stems/roots of this common ornamental and have experience with it? Exploring a common Apocynaceae - Catharanthus roseus The cytotoxic vinca alkaloid constituents are only found in the aerial parts of Catharanthus roseus (Figure 1), the roots are used in several countries as decocts or hot water extracts for the treatment of a number of conditions. The dried root is an industrial source of ajmalicine (raubasine), which increases the blood flow in the brain and peripheral parts of the body. Preparations of it are used to treat the psychological and behavioural problems of senility, sensory problems (dizziness, tinnitus), cerebrovascular accidents, cranial traumas and their neurological sequelae. In general, toxicity showed that both extracts and isolated compounds are safe to a certain limit, beyond that they cause adverse effects [1]. That said, the yield of vinblastine and vincristine from C. roseus aerial parts is is low, whereas the precursors, catharanthine and vindoline, are present in higher concentrations [2]. In the stem, there was in micrograms per milligram fresh weight (FW): catharanthine, 0.506 ± 0.044; ajmalicine, 0.071 ± 0.022; serpentine, 0.397 ± 0.031; tabersonine, 0.017 ± 0.003; and vindoline, 0.0026 ± 0.0002 (0.5mg/g fresh weight catharanthine in stem) Figure 1. The Catharanthus roseus plants used in this paper. The condensation of catharanthine and vindoline is an absolute requirement for the formation of vinblastine and, later, vincristine. As vindoline is required to synthesise the cytotoxic constituents but does not exist in the roots of C. roseus, but only in the green parts of the plant, no vincristine nor vinblastine can be found in the roots of this species In the plant, vindoline is a major constituent (up to 0.5%).Major alkaloids in the roots include ajmalicine, catharanthine, and serpentine. Another source mentions ajmalicine and serpentine are essentially present in the roots, whereas catharanthine and vindoline accumulate in aerial parts. The aerial parts contain 0.2-1% alkaloids [3] Roots to be used in pharmacy must contain at least 0.4% ajmalicine and serpentine Catharanthine (Figure 2) from Catharanthus roseus has been proposed to be a pharmacological treatment for addiction without the adverse side effects associated with ibogaine. It "slows DA reuptake and increases extracellular DA in the nucleus accumbens through partial inhibition of DATs" [4,5] and potentiates GABAARs [6] The root alkaloids from C. roseus root seem to be potent AChE inhibitors and catharanthine exhibited nicotinic receptor antagonism [7]. It has antidepressant activity via SERT inhibition and modulating NE [8] Figure 2. Catharanthine Ajmalicine has antihypertensive effects [9] Experimental: Root material was macerated in basified isopropanol (aq. ammonia) and concentrated to a small sample. TLC (silica, 0.2mm, glass backed, I2 visualisation) gave poor separation of the constituents with a mixed solvent of acetone:white spirits:1:1. White spirits gave better results with a major constituent Rf = 0.42 and some lesser Rf bands. [1] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114647 [2] https://aiche.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/btpr.557 [3] Catharanthus roseus (PROSEA) - PlantUse English (plantnet-project.org) [4] https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/studentpub_uht/242 [5] https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/etd/9656 [6] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2022.114993 [7] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2009.10.008 [8] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2022.175454 [9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajmalicine
  13. Alchemica

    Aptenia cordifolia (A Zulu traditional medicine)

    Thanks for picking that up, corrected. Just made it the phytochemistry but could add more when I'm not so zonked. Hope you're doing well.
  14. Alchemica

    Aptenia cordifolia (A Zulu traditional medicine)

    Tried to do a simple Phytochemistry of Aptenia write up with TLCs Aptenia_TLC.pdf
  15. Alchemica

    2 x D bosseranum seeds - free

    Edit: GONE. If anyone doesn't trust their germination skills, can also offer a couple of free pots of seedlings - PM me. No WA/Tas.
  16. Can offer free cuttings of Lampranthus spectabilis (Red) if interested. I can't properly explore as my serotonin transporter is heavily occupied but as it's a rampant grower and a different colour for the garden, it might be a useful addition. Have dried research material if needed too. Let me know in this thread if interested and I'll get back to you once the festive craziness has quietened down While it is claimed "...it would be almost impossible to achieve any pharmacological response from genera other than Sceletium" [1], recently Lampranthus species have been specifically marketed as "Chinese Kanna", alongside being used as an adulterant, one source stating Lampranthus spectabilis generally contains about 1–1.5% total alkaloids [2]. A high concentration of phenolics has been noted in Lampranthus [3], along with other phytoconstituents [4] "Of the five Lampranthus species tested, only L. aureus and L. spectabilis yielded mesembrenol, while all the other Lampranthus species investigated appeared to contain mesembrenone, but all at very low levels." Lampranthus aureus appears to contain other indolic alkaloids Mesembrine: SERT inhibition [other claims of 5-HT releasing activity], PDE-4 inhibition, Anti-inflammatory, Cytoprotective, Upregulates VMAT-2, Mild inhibition of AChE, Mild MAO inhibition, limited reuptake of NE and DA at high concentrations Mesembrenone/mesembrenol: SERT inhibition, PDE-4 inhibition [1] https://doi.org/10.1076/phbi.36.3.173.6350. [2] https://botany.bio/product/chinese-kanna-1-25-powder/ [3] https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha47411617 [4] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2018.07.014
  17. Alchemica

    Lampranthus 'Chinese Kanna'

    Edit: Gone. Germinated some Lampranthus aureus from seed, have a spare seedling if anyone wants to grow it. PM me. From [1]:
  18. Thanks for the input, feedback and for reading Just random bits of non-Aizoaceae TLC info whilst experimenting Tabernaemontana undulata (root bark) and T. orientalis (stem) Samples were macerated in basified isopropanol (aq. ammonia), decanted and concentrated. TLC (silica, glass backed, 0.2mm, I2 visualisation) with acetone elution gave significant trailing and poor separation of the constituents for both. Elution with acetone:white spirits 1:1 gave some separations of compounds from T. undulata (Rf = 0.13, 0.35, 0.56, 0.89) but poor separation of constituents in the T. orientalis.(one potential constituent Rf = 0.75). White spirits elution alone gave a band of constituents ~ Rf = 0.24 for both Heimia Contains biphenylquinolizidine lactone alkaloids [1]. Plant material (leaf/stem) was soaked in basified isopropanol (aq. ammonia) and concentrated. Initial elution with acetone gave poor results but TLC (silica, 0.2mm, acetone:white spirits 1:1) gave distinct separation of compounds Rf = 0.43, 0.48, 0.55, 0.63, 0.95 Two (Rf = 0.43 and 0.95) were green-yellow/ yellow and fluorescent, the others plain visible pigments (green, blue-grey) [1] https://www.shaman-australis.com/~auxin/heimia.html Lobelias TLC with these posed issues in finding an adequate solvent system. L. cardinalis: Lobinaline as the major alkaloidal constituent (below) L. tupa: lobelanidine, lobeline and pentylsedinine etc (below) Dried aerial plant material was allowed to sit overnight in basified isopropanol (aq. ammonia), decanted and concentrated. TLC (silica, glass backed 0.2mm, acetone elution, I2 visualisation) gave a distinct compound Rf = 0.65 for the L. cardinalis but did not give any notable visible constituents for the L. tupa. TLC (silica, glass backed 0.2mm, acetone:white spirits 1:1, I2 visualisation) gave a distinct compound Rf = 0.40 for L. cardinalis and hints of a potential compound Rf = 0.31 for the L. tupa. Ashwagandha leaf withanolides Leaf withanolide constituents mainly include withaferin A and withanone Crushed dried leaf was macerated in isopropanol and the sample concentrated. TLC (silica, glass backed, 0.2 mm, I2 visualisation) gave poor results eluted with acetone but with mixed solvent (acetone:white spirits 1:1) gave at least four constituents Rf = 0.23, 0.33, 0.48 and 0.55 Exploring a relatively uncharacterised Leguminosae - Senegalia rugata Senegalia rugata syn. A. concinna - Sompoi or Shikakai - seen in Fig. 1 and 2. belongs to the Leguminosae family and is a medicinal plant widely grown in Southern Asia including India, Myanmar and Thailand. It is commonly known as shikakai and soap pod as it is used for cleansing of hair as a natural shampoo. The phytochemistry has been explored only to a limited extent [1,2]. There is also suggestion of internal use and the calyctomine (Fig. 3) has been used in the supplement industry [3]. Initial phytochemical study Figure 3. calyctomine Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and phenolics were found in all extracts while phytosterols was found only in the ethanol extract. It yields lupeol, spinasterol, acacic acid, lactone, and the natural sugars glucose, arabinose and rhamnose. It also contains hexacosanol, spinasterone, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, succinic acid, ascorbic acid, and the alkaloids calyctomine, a tetrahydroisoquinoline, and nicotine. Various other compounds have been isolated and characterised from the pods of this plant such as epigallocatechin, acacic acid lactone, machaerinic acid and its lactone, sapogenin-B, acacidiol, acacigenin-B, and kinmoonosides Experimental: Plant material was macerated in basified isopropanol (NaOH) and concentrated. Initial TLC (Silica, glass backed, 0.2mm, acetone elution, I2 visualisation) gave two main constituents, Rf = 0.14 and 0.59 but there was significant trailing of the compounds. Elution with mixed solvent (acetone:white spirits 1:1) gave a major constituent Rf = 0.65. [1] Screening of Secondary Metabolites and Antibacterial Activity of Acacia concinna http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jm.2010.974.979 [2] Isolation and Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory activity of Epigallocatechin from Senegalia rugata along with PUFAs https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-14-11-23 [3] Calyctomine HCL? https://anabolicminds.com/community/threads/calyctomine-hcl.282282/
  19. Alchemica

    Free TLC

    Have some relatively uncharacterised plants and like to have a go at 'Citizen TLC' and give some plants the tender loving care they deserve on a different level? Can spare a couple of free packs x 10 of Silica plates (100mm x 25mm, 0.2-0.25mm on glass) and some micropipette tips for a couple of people You'd need the rest (jar, suitable solvent, visualisation eg iodine tincture etc) Let me know here if such a project is of interest to you. Please only express interest if it's genuine and you're willing to put time and effort into it and you'd like to, where possible, share your results.
  20. After some peer scrutiny on the initial attempt and revisions, here is a rough draft. mesemb paper V2.pdf
  21. Citizen Plant Science - Exploring the Aizoaceae Despite a long history of traditional use as medicines, the Aizoaceae remain an under-studied family of plants [1]. They often contain phytocompounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and their related intermediary compounds, one of the commonly found alkaloids is the mesembrine-type alkaloids [2,3]. These plants are well known in traditional medicine systems for antidepressant, anxiolytic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Sceletium tortuosum (Figure 1.) contains mesembrine and derivatives (Figure 2.), an alkaloid not typically found in the emarcidum-type Sceletium spp. Other plants such as Delosperma pruinosum, and Delosperma pottsii [2] appeared to have some level of mesembrine but while Mesembryanthemum cordifolium syn. Aptenia cordifolia was initially thought to contain some levels of mesembrine, it seems instead to contain derivatives such as mesembrane sceletenone derivatives [4] which have in initial studies shown antidepressant activity superior to imipramine [5]. Figure 1. S. tortuosum Figure 2. Mesembrine and derivatives. Other Sceletium spp. have been traditionally used, S. emarcidum "was valued as highly as S. tortuosum in Southern Africa by different tribes and makes a very good Kougoed product". While apparently devoid of mesembrine, it seems to contain 4'-O-demethylated mesembrine-type alkaloids [6]. Mesembrine has been found in Amaryllidaceae such as Narcissus pallidulus and Narcissus triandrus. Other Mesembryanthemums such as M. crystallinum and M. nodiflorum have been suggested to contain some levels of mesembrine. More recently, Lampranthus spp. (Figure 3.) have been specifically marketed as Sceletium substitutes 'Chinese Kanna', or used as adulterants. These seem to contain mesembrenol and low levels of mesembrenone. Figure 3. Lampranthus and mesembrenol One early explorer called S. tortuosum ‘the greatest Clearer of the Spirits, and the noblest Restorative in the World’. Traditional use of Sceletium in South Africa often involves the collection and fermentation of the plant material, which has been studied and lead to greater levels of mesembrine and changes to levels of mesembrenone [7] and reduce oxalate levels. Mesembrine is a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor (Ki = 1.4 nM) and to a lesser extent PDE4 inhibitor. Other notable mesembrine-type alkaloids include mesembrenone (also a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor [Ki = 27 nM] and a more potent PDE4 inhibitor than mesembrine itself), and mesembranol. Another assay found that Sceletium tortuosum comprising of > 70% (w/w) stabilized mesembrine was a monoamine releasing agent [8]. The pharmacological properties of mesembrine and it's derivatives are quite diverse, showing anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, VMAT-2 upregulation, mild inhibition of AChE, mild MAO inhibition, limited reuptake of NE and DA at high concentrations. Mesembrenol and mesembrenone seem to also share the SERT inhibitory and PDE4 inhibitory activitty. Clinically, the Sceletium spp. have shown antidepressant, anxiolytic and cognitive enhancement effects, case studies demonstrating increased attention, focus, and motivation while a patient with “a baseline mood of depression alternating with anxiety” felt “more focused, more engaged, and not so socially distant” after ten days [9]. Species such as Delosperma bosseranum (Figure 4) have been suggested by members of the ethnobotanical community to offer similar effects to Sceletium spp. but remain uncharacterised phytochemically and pharmacologically. Others such as Trichodiadema spp. (Figure 4), traditionally used as beer making roots known as 'Karee Moer' (T. barbartum syn. stellatum) as suggested to contain mesembrine but a detailed analysis is lacking (limited to positive alkaloid tests). Figure 4. The prototypical mesembrine containing plant, Sceletium and D. bosseranum and T. barbatum The purpose of this citizen science was to explore a diverse range of Aizoaceae for mesembrine-type alkaloids, including uncharacterised ones such as Delosperma bosseranum and Trichodiadema barbatum and screen diverse Mesembryanthemums for possible mesembrine-type alkaloids. [1] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2022.115988 [2] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2019.112061 [3] https://doi.org/10.1076%2Fphbi.36.3.173.6350 [4] https://def-sa.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/Gaffney_Candice_D_2006_0.pdf [5] https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1788019 [6] https://doi.org/10.3389%2Ffnut.2022.819753 [7] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2018.10.011 [8] https://patents.google.com/patent/US20160038551A1/en [9] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328942189_Kabbo's_Kwain_The_Past_Present_and_Possible_Future_of_Kanna A range of Aizoaceae (Silica, I2 visualisation) gave diverse phytochemical profiles Trichodiadema stellatum (root) TS Trichodiadema bulbosum (leaf/stem) TB Sceletium tortuosum (root) ST Sceletium emarcidum (leaf/stem) SE Aptenia cordifolia AC ? Unknown Mesemb. Drosanthemum floribundum Dros. Mesembryanthemum (Red) [?Lampranthus] MR Mesembryanthemum (Gold) MG Mesembryanthemum (Yellow, squarish stems) MY Mesembryanthemum (White) MW D. bosseranum DB D. floribundum DF 1. acetone elution 2. acetone:white spirits:1:1 elution To TLC soon Tetragonia tetragonioides Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Lampranthus spectabilis (Red) D. echinatum
  22. Alchemica

    Mammillaria ID?

    Anyone have clues on this one just from these pics? Edit: seems it's Mammillaria bocasana
  23. Alchemica

    2 x D bosseranum seeds - free

    3 more free baggies for interested people, last lot were snapped up quick.
  24. I've been interested in this Lobelia as a potentially superior (?) alternative plant to L. inflata. 'The Penobscot people smoked the dried leaves as a substitute for tobacco. It may also have been chewed'. Lobinaline caused a significant, dose-dependent increase in dopamine release and preclinical and clinical data exist that support nAChR-based ligands as promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of depression, alcohol and drug dependence. The alkaloid has been proposed as a treatment for Parkinson's and psychostimulant abuse [1]. Lobinaline appears to be distinct from nicotine and lobeline in terms of its selectivity and functional effects at nAchRs and is a DAT inhibitor. Compared to other plant metabolites, such as nicotine and lobeline, lobinaline is relatively non-selective with respect to α4β2- and α7-nAchRs Lobinaline displays appropriate pharmacokinetics and low mammalian toxicity in mice relative to lobeline, the most widely studied Lobelia alkaloid. Haven't bioassayed myself but if anyone wants to grow it (say first 3 replies in this thread and PMs) let me know. Seed was collected from the plant pictured. No TAS/WA sorry. [1] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27105955/
  25. Alchemica

    2 x D bosseranum seeds - free

    Both gone, should be more seed pods soon so I'll update soon
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