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Alchemica

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Everything posted by Alchemica

  1. Got any science going on in the garden? Gardens can be many things for people. For me, they're also a healthy science experiment. I've found I need to get experimental on the world around me safely, rather than making myself the continuous experiment... This year the veggie gardening has become not just an attempt at self-sufficiency (and therapy) but also in part, a science project I'm growing lots of Brassicaceae but I don't want piss weak produce. I want maximal health benefits and ways to keep the gardening experience novel. This year I'm keeping it simple on the ones for food and going to try using some potassium sulfate (in addition to normal plant nutrition) on the plants [1] Increasing secondary metabolites by using agricultural sustainable practices an important target for maximising health benefits Something as simple as potassium sulfate, applied via the nutrient solution or as a foliar spray, stimulated the secondary metabolites, increasing the contents of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds, in mustards, kale and broccoli Sulfur content is a critical determinant of Brassicaceae plant growth, these plants have higher requirements for this element and aerial and root biomass were maximal after K2SO4 supplementation [1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31177025 Another one intrigues me as a pure experiment - melatonin - proposed as a plant master regulator which can interact with the functions of other plant growth regulators or hormones Alongside my experiments with simple potassium sulfate, I'm going to try some kale plants on melatonin. Plant melatonin not only acts as an antioxidant, but also induces substantial changes in gene expression in many physiological aspects. Melatonin is a pleiotropic molecule that influences many diverse actions to enhance plant growth and has a positive role in biomass accumulation. Exogenous melatonin boosted the growth, photosynthetic, and antioxidant activities in plants Melatonin acts as a biostimulator in situations of abiotic stress, regulating key elements expressed against stressors It is a regulator in the expression of enzymes and regulatory elements of plant hormones Melatonin is also involved in inducing secondary metabolites, including polyphenols and carotenoids Even pre-soaking seeds with 100 μM MEL enhanced per-plant yield by up to 23% and application of 1 μM significantly improved seedling growth in one experiment. I'm more interested in potential for increasing secondary metabolites in plants What happens when veggie growing meets science 1 kale seedling has 1 μM melatonin foliar fed @ height 40mm Control is also 40mm and both will get same lighting and fertiliser regime The race is on... https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30446305 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30256447
  2. Alchemica

    Getting science-y in the garden

    Yeah I have done a little bit with aspirin a long time ago. Thanks for the tip Results are in. Using a foliar and feed solution of 2.5g/L K2SO4 was really seemingly beneficial for getting good growth and yields of Brassica like the purple cauliflower. I didn't have a control for this one but they grew really well, strongly and quickly and nicely anthocyan-y With the melatonin, there seems to be tight constraints on how much enhances growth, and a point where it instead drastically inhibits it. Initially, there was a nice improvement on the growth of Kale seedlings, then I kept going with foliar feeding them and it turned into rapid growth suppression. Melatonin's poor water solubility also poses issues. Most notably, initially there were improvements in promoting initial rapid brightly green new growth... then a fine cut off where application drastically inhibited growth. control vs melatonin (1 μM) foliar feed initial growth improvements
  3. Also experimented with dermal administration, sure you smell floral but does it work well? In depression "aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy." [1] and it is suggested to apply aromatherapy massage treatment once or twice per week. For aromatherapy massage, 1–5% essential oil is used "Application of aromatherapy on both hands in addition to the effect of inhalation aromatherapy showed a significant improvement in depressive symptoms which was superior to the improvement observed when using inhalation aromatherapy" Terpenes possess good transdermal permeation and are readily absorbed due to their liphophilic nature Application to the skin resulted in a fast increase of plasma levels, with maximal plasma levels in 10 min for things like cineole and pinene Cutaneous application of lavender essential oil allowed the penetration of the active molecules especially linalool and linalyl acetate by inhalation and transdermally. The lipophilicity of aromatic compounds facilitates the transfer from blood to brain Pharmacokinetics of linalool in plasma displayed a peak 20 min after lavender essential oil application, this period corresponds to the main behavioural infuence on lavender essential oil [1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241490/ Pharmacokinetics of linalool content in human plasma after the application of 1 g of lavender essential oil (2%) in oil. The dermal administration mode of 1,8-cineole or linalool has a major influence on CNS activity: There was significant activation after dermal application, whereas after inhalation no such changes were detected in one study. In an earlier study, dermal 1,8-cineole in comparison to linalool and a placebo enhanced cognitive performance in a sustained attention task as well as physiological arousal, particularly respiration rate, but did not alter affective state. In another study, performance on cognitive tasks was significantly related to concentration of absorbed 1,8-cineole following exposure to rosemary aroma There was a significant performance enhancing effect of dermal linalool, particularly in males with activation of subcortical limbic brain areas and increased activity of the DMN suggesting a relaxing effect. Linalool enhanced cognitive performance by inducing a more relaxed state. After dermal 1,8-cineole, significant functional activation of the frontal cortex was noted which has been reported frequently during tasks requiring attention. 1,8-cineole possesses a stimulating effect after dermal application. [1] [1] http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ffj.3436
  4. Aromatherapy vs oral oils Orally essential oils seem to be reliant on pharmacological effect but aromatherapy seems to be more overlapped with socio-emotional states of consciousness and a way to ingrain some mindfulness: Olfaction is intimately related to social communication and emotions Scent playlists have been proposed It's like a very gentle, non-threatening catalyst for stuck and stagnant negative thought patterns and emotions. The longer you sit with the fragrant stream aligning your body-mind-spirit, the more there is a gentle unwinding of rigid patterns, deeper embrace of yourself and a gentle positive merger with the world around you It gives you: - a sense of control over your environment - you choose what's diffusing - even when you feel life's out of control. A safe "grounding" base - a sense of connection: to the moment and to the world around you. Deepens your connection to yourself (and nature) - ingrains simple breathing as a positive mindful experience/makes you more aware of it, attunes you to deeper layers of yourself -particularly emotions - and to a connection in the world beyond you - a spiritual element - environmental enrichment with ability to tap into socio-emotional-spiritual aspects - ability to shift the valence of the emotional landscape to more positive experiences along with emotional exploration and reminiscence. Ability to shift thoughts in line with the emotions - As studies have noted, nocturnal olfactory stimulation leads to better sleep quality and a higher level of vigor in the morning "Odour can colour perceptions about the world both positively or negatively through emotion processes and thus can modulate mood and behaviour" Effects of inhaled essential oils cannot be explained by pharmacological mechanisms alone. "Olfaction is intimately linked to emotional processes, sharing some same neural bases and thus constitutes a valuable emotion-inducer" [1]. Expectancies play an important role in the subjective effects of inhaled EOs [2]. Odour pleasantness selectively shifts human attention in the surrounding space [3] and modulates the hedonic value of rewards [4] In monotonous situations it improved mood and other measures [5] Odours that evoke positive autobiographical memories being able to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation [6] Odour may serve as a powerful cue for the recovery of autobiographical memories, inducing subjective reliving and more positive memories after odour exposure [7] producing a number of and more specific memories after odour exposure than without odour [8]. Beneficial effects of same nature to odour and music exposure were observed for autobiographical characteristics (i.e., specificity, emotional experience, and mental time travel) [9] [1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27633559 [2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25183507 [3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28872341 [4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25543090 [5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27633559 [6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27447673 [7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31185649 [8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30890017 [9] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29040475
  5. Been getting the aromatherapy into me, rather than ingesting. I was in the past fixated on oral ingestion being 'the way to go therapeutically' for things like lavender but I've often wondered if it really is... More and more people seem to be using the Silexan oral oils, particularly now they are widespread at Australian chemists, have you had any experience, good or bad with them, particularly compared to lavender as aromatherapy? Aroma via a diffuser has lately been a important aspect to enrich my environment with day-to-day, without those it becomes too easy to get lost in the void of your own inner world without things like that stimulating you via the environment in isolation as some form of modulating connection to the world around you, in the moment, with a degree of impermanence and day-to-day flux "Aromatherapy seems to drive autonomic nervous activity toward a balanced state." In anxiety and stress, sympathetic activity is often increased, together with decreased parasympathetic activity. It has been noted there are higher sympathetic activities for depressed and anxious subjects than for normal subjects:"Positive emotions result in altered autonomic nervous system activity, characterized by increased parasympathetic nervous system activity, whereas negative emotions (e.g., anger) result in parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activity" It is said there are parasympathetic-stimulating oils like lavender and the sympathetic-stimulating oils like rosemary but a study has noted that short inhalation of essential oils suppresses parasympathetic nervous activation while continuous inhalation suppresses sympathetic nervous activation [1] Oils that cause parasympathetic stimulation of the autonomic nervous system in turn are associated with decreased anxiety, improved mood, and increased sedation whereas the sympathetic-stimulating oils have been associated with increased arousal, improved cognition and memory, and enhanced performance on cognitive assessment tests [2] Essential oil inhalation is often effective in reducing the stress index, and that it effectively regulated the activity of the hypothalamus to provide stable and relaxing conditions by creating balance and harmony in the sympathetic nervous system "A clinical study with depressed patients revealed that it was possible to reduce the needed antidepressants' doses by inhaling a mixture of citrus oils; moreover, inhalation of the oil by itself was antidepressive and normalized neuroendocrine hormone levels" [3] With regard to agitation and anxiety, in a clinical mental health population, there were significant reductions in needed medications for anxiety or agitation With regard to depression, significantly more improvement in scores on depression, anxiety, and severity of emotional symptoms, studies finding effects independent of personality traits, psychological status, and psychotherapeutic medication [1] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288053919_Effects_of_essential_oils_used_in_aromatherapy_on_the_autonomic_nervous_system_A_study_using_three_different_methods [2] https://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/M_Shattell_HealingScents_2008.pdf [3] https://www.mitchmedical.us/essential-oils/psychopharmacology-of-essential-oils.html Lavender is rising through the ranks of anti-anxiety medications Lavender oil and its active component, linalool, has anxiolytic, mood stabiliser, sedative, analgesic, and anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties with antidepressant, prosocial and anticonflict effects in animal models It shows efficacy in anxiety disorders and the treatment of agitated behaviour as a neuropsychiatric symptom [1] Simple olfactory stimulation in healthy subjects has been shown to induce changes in brain including the frontopolar, orbitofrontal, and temporal cortex. Olfactory processing depends on dopamine metabolism and orbitofrontal cortex functioning and altering cortical olfactory processing has been associated with improved hyperactivity and impulsivity in some conditions [2] and essential oils may rehabilitate brain dopamine function [3]. There is sensory input-dependent regulation of dopamine and GABA [4] The effect on the nervous system is summarised in [5]: Inhaled it showed anxiolytic properties, increased social interaction, and decreased aggressive behaviour and exposure to lavender effectively improved anticholinergic-induced memory deficits It has potent anxiolytic effects via VDCCs and while linalool does not act directly on GABAA receptors it appears to activate them via olfactory neurons in the nose in order to produce its relaxing effects [6]. While opioidergic neurotransmission and cholinergic neurotransmers appears to play a role, the essential oil and its main components exert affinity for the glutamate NMDA-receptor in a dose-dependent manner and also bind to the serotonin transporter. After 8 weeks of administering the essential oil, a reduced binding potential at the 5HT1A receptor in the hippocampus and the anterior cingulate cortex has been observed It affects autonomic neurotransmission and reduces the stress response in the CNS. In one study the concentration of oxytocin in serum, 2-3 days after the treatment was upregulated with effects on improved neurogenesis and dendritic complexity [7]. It also acts on microglial populations with anti-inflammatory actions "...stress-altered genes involved in synaptic transmission via GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine, and glutamate may potentially recover to normal levels due to a reduction in stress in response to linalool inhalation". It was capable of reversing stress-induced social aversion in animal models, acting as an antidepressant agent [8]. Application of 10% lavender in humans activated the primary olfactory cortex, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex and its extension into the inferior lateral frontal region [1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11994882 [2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21178380 [3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26295793 [4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28411275 [5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23573142 [6] https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181023085648.htm [7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30825591 [8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30347669 Tried things like Lemon and Rosemary as a stimulating option Terpenes seem to work as a symphony with seemingly synergistic effects to me when you really inhale a good stream of them. A bit of a linalool oil is good but... it's better with a bit of limonene in there... even better with α-pinene rich oils etc The polytherapeutic effects of natural compounds are a "are a real alternative for nervous system therapy" [1] Rosemary essential oil is a "powerful tool in helping to clear the mind and for increasing mental awareness. It has also been shown to possess excellent brain-stimulating properties as well as an aid for memory improvement". It made humans more attentive, more alert, vigorous and cheerful [2] and people "felt fresher, became more active, and less drowsy after exposure to the rosemary oil". It also produces a significant enhancement in memory performance and mood [3. 4]. Inhaling lemon essential oil causes antidepressant and anti-stress effects through modulating monoamines and significantly enhanced attention level, concentration, cognitive performance, mood, and memory during the learning process [5] The chemistry: α-Pinene and 1,8-cineole generally dominate the Rosemary essential oil compositions, but camphor, verbenone, camphene, and myrcene may also appear in high concentrations [6] Pharmacology: α-pinene [(+)-α-Pinene was the predominant enantiomer] and 1,8-cineole are potent therapeutics. Performance on cognitive tasks is significantly related to concentration of absorbed 1,8-cineole following exposure to rosemary aroma, with improved performance at higher concentrations [7] 1,8-cineole offers NMDA antagonism, with a weaker AChE inhibitory effect [8] and psychostimulatory effects, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects [9] α-Pinene brings along effects on learning and memory [10] with anti-stress effects, also modulating NGF and dopamine [11] Monoterpenes such as α-pinene and 1,8-cineole exert neuroprotective effects by regulating gene expression and α-pinene was observed to initiate soothing physiological and behavioural responses with a significant impact on physiological and psychological relaxation [12]. Citrus oils have their pharmacology well sumarised in [5] [1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30378477 [2] https://www.mdpi.com/2218-0532/77/2/375 [3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3700080/ [4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12690999 [5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29976894 [6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5368539/ [7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983963 [8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28088901 [9] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27771935 [10] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29234406 [11] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29273038 [12] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5402865/ Spanish sage: Spanish sage is proposed to be an "excellent essential oil to diffuse when concentrating" and "For soothing anxiety, tension and stress" Salvia lavandulaefolia aroma inhalation produced a significant enhancement effect for memory [1] and orally at 50 µL of the essential oil, improvement in mood and cognition was observed [2] - therapeutic effect for cognitive disorders attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, estrogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties - potential natural antioxidant activity to prevent oxidative stress accompanying degenerative diseases Enjoying a blend of Spanish Sage, Lavender and Lemon (all on the "blends well with..." list on one site) like the Rosemary blends, similarly to which it brings along 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. I also notice that having scent as an enriching environmental stimulus stops the desire to generally snack on anything and there is a role for scent in modulating blood glucose [3] [1] http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aces.2014.43037 [2] https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881110385594 [3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5820856/
  6. [Done - thanks for interest - will send to the two interested people] It is said to be "helpful where there is fixed and unyielding mental perspectives, helping the person to make shifts and changes from a calm and centred point, relieved of agitation with space for new thoughts and ideas to emerge." Traditionally used for several disorders “Reactive, agitated and masked depressions, melancholy, neurasthenia, neuropathy, organic neurosis, vegetative-dystonic disturbances, imbalances, constitutional lability of the nervous system”, as well as a sleep-inducer and sedative tea. A too high dose has been reported to make people feel too sedated, too heavy and cumbersome. Again, the best dose is the amount that the person can palpably feel relaxing them and making them feel more comfortable." [1] Both aerial parts and roots contain alkaloids, the latter being much richer (1.6-2.7%). Six flavonol 3-O-glycosides were isolated from the aerial parts [2] Relative safety is evidenced by traditional use of the plant, which can be found in the European market for more than 30 years without any safety concern. - Affinity for the benzodiazepine receptors and alkaloids increase the binding of GABA to GABA receptors - Binding to 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors Typical pharmacy preparations (i.e., 300 mg of dry plant material per capsule, twice daily) theoretically contain insufficient quantities of these alkaloids required to induce desired biological effects. It is evident from HPLC analysis that protopine and a-allocryptopine levels in the aerial parts of this herb are too low to modulate significantly the chloride-ion flow across the GABAA receptors at traditional doses. In order to achieve important medicinal effects (regarding relatively low alkaloid levels determined in aerial parts of this plant), one would need to increase the dried plant dosage above 1 g [3] The aqueous extract of the plant at 25mg/kg in mice exerted an anxiolytic action, as proved by changes in behavioural parameters; at higher levels, the effect became more sedative. The anxiolytic and sedative effects of E. californica are caused by affinity for GABA receptors, as evidenced by suppression of anxiolytic and sedative effects following pre-treatment with flumazenil. While it has potential of causing interactions with drugs that are metabolized by cytochrome P450s, the tea seems to be safer [4]. [1] https://www.rjwhelan.co.nz/herbs A-Z/californian_poppy.html [2] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314151657_ESCHSCHOLZIA_CALIFORNICA_A_PHYTOCHEMICAL_AND_PHARMACOLOGICAL_-REVIEW [3] https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bri/2015/617620/ [4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27054913
  7. Alchemica

    Tagetes lucida

    Tagetes lucida As the last one from my garden I enjoyed over the last growing season, aiming to spread the love of this plant to 3 people this year who want to grow it with some free seed (No TAS/WA). Post a reply and I'll get back to you once seed is soon harvested. Once again, I'm just going by the way I've harvested seed from other Tagetes like patula. Hope it's the same. It has a rich spiritual background of traditional use with anti-anxiety and sedative-like properties It's been said to be "vitally important to use very fresh leaves" and experimenters state a dose of 2,000 mg - most participants felt no need to increase the dosage further to “...creates a ‘lucid’ state which can be appreciated in a number of ways: listening to music, contemplating, grooving, introspection, communication, etc. Some of the effects noted are: clarity, alertness, closed-eye visuals, body warmth, body tingles, feeling of well-being, and some time-distortion. The period of alteration lasted 2 to 3 hours in most cases and there was no interference with sleeping afterwards, although many reported increased dreaming (sometimes with weird content).” [1] It is used historically in religious ceremonies including Huichol Indians who ceremonially smoke it with Mapacho and it is also used with other sacred plant medicines [2,3] T. lucida is recommended for treating emotional and nervous disorders, often as part of a mixture with other anxiolytic plants [4] Mexican traditional medicine prescribes T. lucida for “nervios” and “susto”, two culture-bound syndromes described as illnesses characterized by a “state of bodily and mental unrest” able to decrease the ability to achieve daily goals and as a condition of being frightened and “chronic somatic suffering stemming from emotional trauma” "It is used for producing a fragrant smoke (sahumar) to ritually clean houses of evil spirits. The use in sweat baths (temazcal) and for ritual cleansing (“limpias”) are related" Anxiolytic and sedative-like activities through 5-HT1A and GABA/BZD receptors possibly through 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin (dimethylfraxetin). Other coumarins have also been reported from the species, such as herniarine (7-methoxycoumarin), scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin), and the dimethyl allyl ether of 7-hydroxy-coumarin, umbelliferone, esculetin and scopoletin along with flavonoids, some of them with known anxiolytic-like activity, have been reported in polar extracts of this species. Significant anxiolytic-like response effects were found in animal models from 10 mg/kg onward of the aqueous extract An influence on serotonergic neurotransmission by T. lucida was also reported in the antidepressant effects which were likely the result of modulation of serotonin reuptake/release, dependent on 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. There is not only a significant involvement of the serotonin neurotransmission in the mechanisms of central effects of this species, but also GABAergic participation [5] It is is a source of phenylpropanoid EOs: "at least four chemotypes can exist, characterized by the main presence of (a) high levels of (E)-anethole (up to 74%) and low to very low levels of methyl chavicol (11.57%) or methyleugenol (1.8%), and germacrene D; (b) high levels of methyl chavicol (up to 97%), in addition to methyleugenol, methylisoeugenol, and germacrene D; (c) high levels of methyl eugenol (up to 80%), in addition to methylchavicol and methylisoeugenol; and (d) high amounts of nerolidol (around 40%), in addition to methyleugenol, methylchavicol, and caryophyllene oxide" [1] https://www.world-of-lucid-dreaming.com/mexican-tarragon-tagetes-lucida.html [2] https://www.americanherbalistsguild.com/…/jahg_spring_2017_… [3] http://entheology.com/plants/tagetes-lucida-marigolds/ [4] https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/11/2847/pdf [5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26873624
  8. Alchemica

    Tagetes lucida

    Got leftovers of seed if anyone else wants some (No WA/Tas) send me a PM.
  9. Alchemica

    Ashwagandha powder sourced from Australia

    How much are you after? These are the bits I left when I was making my own root as I didn't know how to get in and clean them totally free of soil well but if you are up for that process you can have them, if you want to experiment with it? Also got a BIG bag of Californian Poppy if that's by chance of use to you
  10. There was space at a local community garden that was unused and unloved that was kindly offered. I'd suggest utilising local community garden land if it is at all available, sure keep the plants community friendly but you'd be surprised, often these community gardens are up for something people are enthused about beyond the normal food
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    From the album: Healing in the gardens

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    From the album: Healing in the gardens

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    From the album: Healing in the gardens

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    From the album: Healing in the gardens

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    From the album: Healing in the gardens

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    From the album: Healing in the gardens

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    From the album: Healing in the gardens

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    From the album: Healing in the gardens

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    From the album: Healing in the gardens

  20. Ketosis as therapy Heard of a few people doing this, feel free to share your experience We're often centric on putting something in to remedy disease. Taking things out is often less favoured and easy. The nice thing about a diet change is you regain choice of, and gain discipline of what you put into your body and hopefully a health outcome out of it. The second is you can often address the issues of poor health Finding a diet and lifestyle that delivers improvements puts a feeling of health back in your conscious control. I thought, what am I like with very low carbs? I tried exogenous ketones, looking for a fix. What happens with using willpower for better health? I'm still using thiamine but now as a B150 complex and keeping balance in micronutrients including trace elements... my macronutrient profile was not delivering - I was perma-hungry on my relatively planty but carb-loaded diet... keeping up exercise and gardening but so up and down and moody, push through it I tried.... Why not change diet a bit/have another crack at nutritional ketosis? It's "trendy" but also interesting on paper. "...changing diet triggers a deeper consciousness about you" Allowing you to "align your new eating habits with your other new ones in general" Mice on higher glycaemic food showed more autistic behaviors, such as reduced social interactions and activities that seemed to serve no purpose, according to the study, while the low glycaemic mice saw their behaviours improve "Dietary lifestyle changes can have a positive impact throughout the lifespan and appear to not only reduce the risk of acquiring cognitive impairments, but can also attenuate existing impairments: a recent study showed that a 4-week low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (GI) diet resulted in improved memory performance and insulin metabolism in adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment In a healthy young student population those with better glucose regulation perform better on tests of memory, vigilance, planning and dichotic listening compared with those with poorer glucose regulation. A higher-glycemic load diet was associated with higher depression symptoms, total mood disturbance, and fatigue compared to a low-glycemic load diet especially in overweight/obese, but also otherwise healthy, adults" [ref] In ASD, all subjects on the KD had increased BHB, only 50% of subjects demonstrated significant improvements in some studies, some being super-responders with dramatic improvements in social affect. There have been improvement in case studies in hyperactivity, attention span, abnormal reactions to visual and auditory stimuli, usage of objects, adaptability to changes, communication skills, fear, anxiety, and emotional reactions In more serious mental illness, evidence against the role of calorie restriction the mechanism of action of improvement in models, it seems to be more related to ketone bodies I got into meal skipping first. Then low GI, then super carb reduction, then ketotarian. Eventually I was in measurable ketosis, over 1.5mmol/L. Even just getting to breakfast skipping was hard enough without mood going way too low and symptoms initially. Ketosis, it's nice for some conditions on paper but what's it like in reality? "...many people with certain mental disorders find it especially difficult to maintain thanks to the very symptoms they’re looking to manage". "...amid the excitement about the ketogenic diet, I think it’s important to point out its drawbacks as a psychiatric tool." I agree, if you're looking to use a more extreme diet for mental health "wait until your brain is relatively stable before any kind of diet change". I tried getting into ketosis with extreme distress as a baseline once, even helping it along with BHB and I don't recommend it. It didn't work and made things worse. "...after two days of eating fewer than 30 grams of carbs, it hit — a period of low energy and weakness I woke up achy and sluggish, confused and depressed. I was simply too tired to be nervous about anything. But my depression had deepened, sending me into a dull blue fog. Then ten days, each of them torturous." 1. Caloric restriction increases longevity, memory, quality of life and reduces risk factors for neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases "We suggest that switching between time periods of negative energy balance (short fasts and/or exercise) and positive energy balance (eating and resting) can optimize general health and brain health The increase in autism tracks remarkably closely with the increase in childhood overweight or obesity during the same time period (data from autismspeaks.org and the US Centers for Disease Control), suggesting a causal link between lack of metabolic switching and autistic behaviours, potentially through BDNF expression and excessive mTOR pathway activation" [1] "...metabolic programs relying on efficient fatty acid and ketone body oxidation are most of the time shut off in the modern lifestyle and have to be reintegrated in order to overcome the obesity epidemic – widely known as the breeding ground for most of the Western diseases" The modern lifestyle promotes continuous fueling of adipocytes - most authorities in the Western world recommend at least 50% of the daily caloric intake as carbohydrates but we're losing metabolic flexibility. We have an environment of energy abundance, prolonged psychosocial stress and physical inactivity. It is suggested that "...that the strong increase of diseases related to metabolic abnormalities is largely based on a deficit in metabolic flexibility induced by things like psycho-emotional stress, high meal frequency, physical inactivity etc" It's suggested we need to get used to "periodic fasting or calorie restriction, occasional meal skipping, ketogenic diets and of course exercise. Intermittent fasting and longer-term caloric as well as carbohydrate restriction are parts of our genetic heritage" [ref] There is abnormal hedonic behaviour displayed by diets with high-glycemic carbohydrates - today modern humans are surrounded by a plethora of rewarding stimuli in a nearby environment and through food, we are blunted to the point of reaching reward hyposensitivity What happens with strict carbohydrate restriction to induce adaptation to ketosis? - Improved memory function with a medium effect size in individuals with impairment in response to a relatively brief period of carbohydrate restriction designed to reduce insulin levels and induce ketone metabolism. Improved memory performance, potentially by regulating hippocampal function - Upregulation of GABAergic tone, regulation of glutamatergic transmission (changes the ratio of GABA:glutamate in favor of GABA), dopaminergic and serotonergic modulation along with changes in kynurenine metabolism. Enhanced the availability of brain tryptophan and serotonin, later releases of endogenous endorphins - greater satiety and reduced overall consumption - improved central insulin sensitivity - enhanced cerebral blood flow and blood–brain barrier function - reduced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression, similar to the effects of the antidepressant ketamine - dramatic up‐regulation in neuronal autophagy (sometimes referred to as cellular cleansing) - may moderate the pathogenic relationship between stress reactivity and brain in limbic and prefrontal regions - β-hydroxybutyrate increases the frequency of gamma oscillations and has a protective role in executive function in serious mental illness - anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory action - increases the activity of a family of transcriptional repressors known as sirtuins and broad epigenetic regulatory activities at physiological concentrations, these may alter seeking behaviour, preventing excessive ethanol intake and relapse and facilitate extinction. Enhance GABAergic and glutamatergic plasticities in DA neurons and normalise hyposensitivity to GABA. - activated brain PPARα: through this is likely to regulate expression of many genes encoding enzymes of amino acid/neurotransmitter metabolism and stimulation of PPARα improves cognitive function (reducing cognitive inflexibility, perseveration etc) in models of impaired cognitive function The beneficial effects of caloric restriction may require only a short‐term reduction in caloric intake Some of the things that temporarily flared up were transient worsening of AVHs and not enough energy to want to bother trying to socialise. I was temporarily in quite a negative mindset and not interested in much of anything. Now there are a few elements: 1. Stability of mind, quite a notable difference in consciousness and anxiolysis. A calm, centred softness. Consciousness is becoming clear and slowly expansive again. Still struggling with my memory, eg ingraining things but we'll see how that goes. Normally I struggle with extreme perservation, feel "locked in" to loops, like I'm not in control, "driven" and akathisic. There feels like a liberating sense of me driving choice again. Even social interaction was a relatively normal experience without aberrant emotionality and odd stress responses 2. Lack of hunger and better sleep 3. Clean energy as needed and less inner mind chatter. Normally I feel heavy in body, mind and spirit but today I felt like having an unco grove to music to unwind a bit, just to loosen up a bit 4. A spiritual element. Feeling generally satisfied as I am with a clear horizon. Normally I'm on the chase for something... and then another thing. While I'm trying to put minimal kJ in, it's interesting being in a state where you're burning and using fats, either what you put in, or your own, for energy. Instead of spiking blood glucose, you can get a feel for different fats and their uses. MCTs are nice for a quick boost and adapting to ketosis [1] and the initial stage but soon enough, you want to be running on healthier fats. That said, MCTs are the 'crack of fats' increasing BHB in a linear, dose-dependent manner and increasing total brain energy metabolism by increasing ketone supply [2], having positive effects on verbal memory and processing speed in patients with impairments [3] and exerting anxiolytic and social effects [4]. Coconut oil may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes [5] and has beneficial effects on neuron survival [6] If you want an interesting combo, try a carnitine source with your longer chain fats. Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) require L-carnitine as a transporter into the mitochondrial matrix, while the MCTs do not. While most patients do not require carnitine supplementation [7], Carnitine helps shuttle fatty acids across cell membranes to be oxidized by mitochondria, covering an important role in lipid metabolism, acting as an obligatory cofactor for β-oxidation of fatty acids by facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane as acylcarnitine esters. Oleic acid sources do seem to curb hunger nicely. There is reduced food intake in an oleate-specific manner [8].There is a hypoglycemic effect of oleic acid and the probable dependence of glutathione [9] Watch out for saturated fats: these increase brain inflammation and activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis Dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of omega-3 supplementation when their intake is combined [1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29951312 [2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29914035 [3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30367958 [4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29908242 [5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27430387 [6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28126466 [7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11879348 [8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27654062 [9] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28214972
  21. Alchemica

    Ketosis as therapy

    What have I noted about running on low intakes of carbohydrates? I've been running low carbs. To the point most fruit sounded scary and I got very selective with fruits and anything carbs - occasionally a few chickpeas was my limit. I've only just started putting them back in significantly ie some brown rice - I don't have bread, cereal. pasta etc. I was very hesitant to start putting in significant carbs again as they do seem to significantly impact weight aspects for me but I was getting totally dysfunctional Why the sourpuss? Maybe it's your low carb diet In direct contrast to what advocates of low-carbohydrate diets promise—an end to mood swings and fatigue, low-carb diets can lead to pronounced feelings of depression and sadness, even rage. "People feel very angry, and their antidepressants don't work well, either" Low-carb diet may particularly have an adverse effect on those prone to low moods. “If you’ve cut our carbs and experience anxiety or depressive feelings as a result, you’re actually less likely to exercise, eat well and take care of yourself. "...the low-carbohydrate diet may have had detrimental effects on mood that, over the term of one year, negated any positive effects of weight loss" [1] Restricting carbohydrates could make it hard for you to fall and stay asleep. [2] As I mentioned in the sleep bit: Also, fasting blood glucose results have been persistently somewhat elevated causing concern. Can being low on carb intake paradoxically potentially do that kind of blood glucose dysregulation? It seems it can... “Why is my fasting blood glucose higher on low carb?” I hadn't heard of “adaptive glucose sparing” [3] My cognition was crap, probably from the months of sleep deprivation too. Persistent odd states of consciousness, too. Despite a growing body of clinical evidence suggesting that low-carbohydrate diets can be helpful for people with brain problems, including neurological, psychiatric, and cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, a low-protein, high-carb diet may be an easier alternative to calorie restriction for people looking to preserve brain health and prevent cognitive decline [4]. These findings have been critiqued "There is a strong consensus that a diet rich in carbohydrates and fiber is crucial for brain health and Alzheimer's prevention." (along with associated fiber deficiencies also harm our guts and subsequently our microbiome, which can also pose negative long-term effects on the brain and incite brain fog, confusion, and even anxiety). ...the low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet appeared to promote hippocampal health and biology in the mice, on some measures to an even greater degree than those on the low-calorie diet [1] https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091109173614.htm [2] https://www.livestrong.com/article/482729-i-cant-sleep-on-a-low-carb-diet/ [3] https://www.dietdoctor.com/low-carb/fasting-blood-glucose-higher [4] https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323772.php
  22. Alchemica

    Free Galphimia glauca

    Can spare a few people some free seed [and/or smallish quantities of research material (in exchange for an opinion in a thread)]. I'll say the first three people? Can probably do more if someone's really keen, just keeping some seed for plant meets etc. Post here then shoot me a PM. "Best time to sow is late autumn and winter in good quality seed raising mix, cover lightly as seeds need light to germinate. Place in a warm sunny position. Don't plant out until late spring/early summer, keep moist on transplant. Don't overfeed - likes impoverished soil" High-quality evidence was found to exist for the use of Galphimia glauca (galphimia) for anxiety disorders [1] Dose: Dried herb 0.6–1 g per day standardized to 0.175–0.348 mg of galphimine B Clinical trials showing equivalence to synthetic anxiolytics No adverse reactions found in studies Generalized anxiety, GAD While emerging data is encouraging, further placebo-controlled studies are needed. Galphimines have been identified as active compounds in galphimia, with the nor-secotriterpenes galphimine A and galphimine B, being shown to have the strongest anxiolytic activity. Galphimine B has been considered the primary active constituent for galphimia’s anxiolytic and sedative effect, and is the constituent standardized for clinical trials. Galphimine B has been shown to interact with serotonergic transmission in the dorsal hippocampus in rats. This occurs by increasing the frequency of neuronal discharge in CA1 cells, resulting in activation of 5HT(1A) receptors. One study in mice demonstrated that galphimines cross the blood–brain barrier, with galphimine A found to have an effect on the central nervous system. 2.5.3 Evidence of Efficacy 2.5.3.1 Preclinical A number of galphimine constituents, including galphimine B, were evaluated for their anxiolytic effects in mice using the EPM. Mice were intraperitoneally administered 15 mg/kg of a galaphimine derivative 1 hour before testing. An anxiolytic-like effect in the mice was found for both galphimine A and galphimine B, with a significant increase in the time spent in and number of entries into the open arm in the EPM. A second study on mice used a methanolic extract (standardized for galphimine B, 8.3 mg/g) at different doses (125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg), which were orally administered at three different times (24, 18 and 1 hour before the test). Significant anxiolytic-like effects were found in the light–dark paradigm test and the EPM, but not the forced swimming test. 2.5.3.2 Clinical Two clinical trials have found galphimia to be an effective anxiolytic. The first was a 4-week, positive-controlled double-blind RCT, with a cohort of 152 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD and HAMA scores ≥19 . The two groups received either galphimia aqueous extract (310 mg standardized to 0.348 mg of galphimine B), or the benzodiazepine lorazepam (1 mg). Each treatment was administered in capsule form (identical in appearance) twice daily. Both groups demonstrated a significant reduction in anxiety symptoms. There were no significant side effects reported in the galphimia group, which contrasted with the lorazepam group, in which over 21 % of people reported excessive sedation. https://neupsykey.com/herbal-anxiolytics-with-sedative-actions/ "0.175 mg of galphimine-B and administered for 15 weeks to patients with generalized anxiety disorder, showed greater anxiolytic effectiveness than that obtained with lorazepam, with high percentages of therapeutic tolerability and safety." [2, 3] Galphimia glauca has been used for many years in Mexican traditional medicine for treating mental diseases, particularly nervous hyperexcitability disorders. This plant contains galphimines which have been shown to possess the ability of modifying the frequency of discharge of dopaminergic neurons in the Ventral tegmental area [4]. Galphimine-B appears to be an allosteric modulator of 5HT1A receptors [5] It was capable of blocking positive and cognitive symptoms associated with psychosis induced by ketamine [6] Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical profile of Galphimia glauca. [1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29575228 [2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22828921 [3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17562493 [4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12567277 [5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21742023 [6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29710504
  23. This plant was once of interest at the forums and on and off of interest to me but I've not heard much of people's positive experiences with it. If you have anything to share, feel free. Radix puerariae is one of the most widely used ancient traditional Chinese medicines and is also consumed as food. Kudzu is now considered for the treatment of many kinds of addictions, metabolic conditions, pain and for it's CNS therapeutic potential. The most abundant isoflavone of kudzu root is puerarin, but it also contains daidzein, daidzin and other isoflavones It selectively suppresses ethanol intake and inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2, an enzyme involved in serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) metabolism and alters monoamine levels. It "specifically targets unique drug related episodic surges in dopamine, a pathophysiologic mechanism that appears to underlie much of drug-seeking behaviour." [1] " a single dose of kudzu extract (active isoflavone content of 520mg) quickly reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm. These data add to the mounting clinical evidence that kudzu extract may be a safe and effective adjunctive pharmacotherapy for alcohol abuse and dependence. " [study] It's intriguing as puerarin is also a promising rapid-acting antidepressant compound through AMPAR-mTOR signaling pathway activation and increased BDNF [2], exerts anxiolytic-like effects, which may be "associated with normalisation of 5-HT levels and biosynthesis of allopregnanolone in brain" [3] and alleviated the behavioural deficits induced by chronic stress [4] and may be a "potentially valuable preventative therapeutics for memory-related nervous disorders" [5]. It also possibly acts through opioid system. Available evidence from animal models shows that antioxidant and antiapoptosis activities of puerarin protect neurons against damage in dementia and Parkinson's (partially prevents the chemically-induced DA neurodegeneration in mice and rats, and stimulates striatal GDNF) and puerarin has been shown to decrease the morbidity of ischemic stroke [6]. It is neuroprotective and there are therapeutic application of puerarin-related compounds in neurodegenerative diseases It has been called a "potentially valuable preventative therapeutic for brain disorders due to their abilities to promote the neuronal cytoarchitecture and the synaptic functionality" "The antidiabetes activity of puerarin includes reduced body weight gain, improved blood glucose control, and improved glucose tolerance. R. pueraria has been used to treat diabetes for thousands of years, and Puerarin can reduce blood sugar and increase insulin receptor sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes". - Acute administration of puerarin significantly improves glucose tolerance in animal models and is promising in humans: - Chronic kudzu root supplementation improves glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity in animal models Kudzu root in the diet in animals is associated with a decrease in fasting glucose and improvements in both glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test) as well as insulin tolerance (indicative of insulin sensitivity) - Isoflavones act as antidiabetic agents [7] and decreased food intake and body weight gain [8] and Pueraria lobata could interfere with antipsychotic-associated insulin resistance and revert overexpressed IR-related proteins [9]' -Paradoxically, there is "evidence for the role of phytoestrogenic compounds in improvement of sexual function and testosterone production in male animals" These isoflavones have been linked to "significantly improved androgenic and sexual behaviour parameters. There was also an increase in serum concentration of FSH and improvement in serum testosterone level" [10] However, like other isoflavones, puerarin, kudzu and its other phytoestrogenic components act in part as selective estrogen receptor modulators displayed preferential affinity for ERβ and altered sperm parameters [11] There are hints that they may be negative as removing dietary isoflavones in adult male rats causes obesity and diabetes in some models [12] and long-term consumption of a diet rich in soy isoflavones can have marked influences on patterns of aggressive and social behaviour [13]. This is coupled with dysregulation of the HPG-axis and thyroid function Isoflavones definitely seem like a bad idea developmentally as they "...produced a delay on the onset of puberty and "at high doses of isoflavones ... prevent the stimulation of the secretion of pituitary hormones and the production of T abolishing the onset of puberty" [14] There is possible for interactions [15] [1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022266 [2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30284466 [3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29101599 [4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28740098 [5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28734961 [6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693344 [7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30958562 [8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30402623 [9] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30946280 [10] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489512 [11] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22278629 [12] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27469930 [13] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15053944 [14] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30924551 [15] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24710899
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