Note: I don't agree AT ALL with the aims of some organisations linked to below. But their effectiveness (or lack thereof) is worth studying.
Fundamentals For Effective Lobbying
Effective Lobbying Strategies
The Victorian drug statistics handbook 2003: Patterns of drug use and related harm in Victoria
http://www.health.vic.gov.au/drugservices/downloads/hbook_2003.pdf Not much use, messy and inconsistent stats - sometimes MDMA is included as a hallucinogen ( eg for health reporting purposes), sometimes not
2007 National Drug Strategy
http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/phe/ndshs07-df/ndshs07-df.pdf Form of hallucinogens used, recent users aged 14 years or older - Datura/angel’s trumpet comes in at a staggering 4.7%, but they admit there isRESEARCH CHEMICAL DRUG USE a "Relative standard error greater than 50%."
AUSTRALIAN DRUG TRENDS 2010
Findings from the
Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDR
http://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/NDARCWeb.nsf/resources/Conference1/$file/IDRS+&+EDRS+2010.pdf - Not a lot of people using tropanes, though why it was included under the heading of "RESEARCH CHEMICAL DRUG USE" is a mystery...(Thanks for this qualia )
Louisiana State law banning a number of plants, including such deadly varieties as Mugwort, Lions tail and Damiana: http://www.legis.state.la.us/billdata/streamdocument.asp?did=722309
and their law that banned Salvia Divinorum, plus datura, galangal (yes, that's right), Calea and many more.
But don't feel left out, our glorious federal government is giving their own band of stupidity a red-hot go
Plants used for stress-related ailments in traditional Zulu, Xhosa and Sotho medicine. Part 1: Plants used for headaches Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants used by the Guaymi Indians in Western Panama. Part I Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume 20, Issue 2, July 1987, Pages 145-171
The effect of Tulbaghia violacea extracts on testosterone secretion by testicular cell cultures Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume 132, Issue 1, 28 October 2010, Pages 359-361
More to come
These links won't work for most people, sorry. Will post more info soon.
Alkaloids from Boophone disticha with affinity for the serotonin transporter
A preliminary inventory of plants used for psychoactive purposes in southern African healing traditions
Review on plants with CNS-effects used in traditional South African medicine against mental diseases
Mmmmm Boophone sp!
"Effect of Triterpenoid Saponins from Bacopa monniera on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice" Yun Zhou1, Ling Peng2, Wei-Dong Zhang3, De-Yun Kong4, Planta Medica, 2009; 75: 568-574
Given the mode of action this suggests, maybe brahmi can be utilised as a treatment or preventative when anticholinergic compounds are causing problems.
Evodia fruits (Evodia rutaecarpa, Rutaceae) "evodiamine shows the analgesic action by desensitizing sensory nerves" "The Nociceptive and Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Evodiamine from Fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa in Mice", Yoshinori Kobayashi, Planta Medica 2003; 69: 425-428
Distribution of Alkaloids in Some Western Australian Plants
T. E. H. Aplin and J. R. Cannon
Economic Botany, Vol. 25, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1971), pp. 366-380
But there was also this: Ochrosia poweri
Alkaloids of Ochrosia poweri Bailey. II. The 2-acylindole stem-bark bases
B Douglas, JL Kirkpatrick, BP Moore and JA Weisbach
Stem-bark of Ochrosia poweri Bailey furnished isoreserpiline, elliptamine, and three new indole alkaloids, ochropamine (C22H26O3N2), ochropine (C23H28O4N2), and powerchrine (C22H26O3N2). Ochropamine and ochropine are 2-acylindole derivatives closely related to the alkaloid vobasine. Their structures have been assigned as (XVI) and (XVII), respectively, by means of a combination of chemical and spectroscopic techniques.
Australian Journal of Chemistry 17(2) 246 - 255 http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/CH9640246.htm
Also known as Neisosperma poweri http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/...sosperma~poweri
Following the dicussion with Mindexpansion, JDanger, Vertemorphous etc, here is the start of my collection of relevant research. This will be transferred to a thread shortly, and (if I had my way), would be avalable through the eventual (possible) website set up to provide advocacy and information to defend ethnobotanical cultivation and practices. Note that due to my university web access most of these links won't work, so you may have to use the citation provided and find a copy yourself. Enjoy!
"Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse"
Prof David Nutt FMedScia, , Leslie A King PhDb, William Saulsbury MAc and Prof Colin Blakemore FRSd, The Lancet, Volume 369, Issue 9566, 24 March 2007-30 March 2007, Pages 1047-1053. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=A...1e5ba85078e08ff
Drug misuse and abuse are major health problems. Harmful drugs are regulated according to classification systems that purport to relate to the harms and risks of each drug. However, the methodology and processes underlying classification systems are generally neither specified nor transparent, which reduces confidence in their accuracy and undermines health education messages. We developed and explored the feasibility of the use of a nine-category matrix of harm, with an expert delphic procedure, to assess the harms of a range of illicit drugs in an evidence-based fashion. We also included five legal drugs of misuse (alcohol, khat, solvents, alkyl nitrites, and tobacco) and one that has since been classified (ketamine) for reference. The process proved practicable, and yielded roughly similar scores and rankings of drug harm when used by two separate groups of experts. The ranking of drugs produced by our assessment of harm differed from those used by current regulatory systems. Our methodology offers a systematic framework and process that could be used by national and international regulatory bodies to assess the harm of current and future drugs of abuse.
"The Use of Hallucinogens in the Treatment of Addiction"
Author: John H. Halpern
DOI: 10.3109/16066359609010756, Journal Addiction Research & Theory, Volume 4, Issue 2 June 1996 , pages 177 - 189
Research into treating drug dependence with hallucinogens, although promising, ended with questions still unanswered because of varying, in some cases skeptical, methodology and insufficient adherence to a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Interest is again emerging, especially with the recent patenting in the United States of ibogaine for its apparent anti-craving properties. A review of the literature shows that these properties may be present across the entire family of hallucinogens. Potential efficacy may be tied to their agonism and antagonism at specific serotonin receptor sites. After the administration of a hallucinogen, there is a positive “afterglow” lasting weeks to months which might be extended through repeated dosing. Ibogaine and LSD both have lengthy periods of action, making their application unwieldy. However, tryptamines, such as N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are so short-acting that they could easily be administered in an office setting. With numerous hallucinogens yet to be tested, a hallucinogen might well be discovered with superior anti-craving properties and non-deleterious side-effect profile.
From harm reduction to human rights: bringing liberalism back into drug reform debates"
Author: Andrew D. Hathaway
DOI: 10.1080/0959523021000023270, Drug and Alcohol Review, Volume 21, Issue 4 December 2002 , pages 397 - 404
"Andrew Hathaway notes that harm reduction seldom articulates or acknowledges the moral foundation on which it might build to affect meaningful changes in policy. He argues that despite the rhetorical strengths of empiricism, an openly liberal, human rights orientation imbues rational argument with the principles needed to sustain pragmatic drug reform solutions. Liberalism, with its norms of social tolerance and respect for civil liberties, is presented here as key to the future development of harm reduction discourse as a way of advancing human rights themes in contemporary drug policy debates."
More to follow.
In searching for NMDA antagonists in nature, I came across this species. Research on it seems quite new (relatively).
Planta Medica 2000; 66: 770-772
"Antinociceptive Profile of Hodgkinsine"
To further understand the mechanism of analgesic activity and structural requirements of pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloids identified in Psychotria colorata, we here report the analgesic activity of the trimer hodgkinsine on thermal and chemical models of analgesia. Results show that hodgkinsine produces a dose-dependent naloxone reversible analgesic effect in thermal models of nociception, suggesting that activation of opioid receptors participates in hodgkinsine's mode of action. Hodgkinsine shows a potent dose-dependent analgesic activity against capsaicin-induced pain, indicating the participation of NMDA receptors in hodgkinsine-induced analgesia. Such a dual mechanism of action may be of interest for developing innovative analgesics.
"Synthesis of All Low-Energy Stereoisomers of the Tris(pyrrolidinoindoline) Alkaloid Hodgkinsine and Preliminary Assessment of Their Antinociceptive Activity"
The discovery that alkaloids isolated from Psychotria colorata Muell Arg (RUBIACEAE), a medicinal species traditionally used as an analgesic in the Brazilian Amazon,9 have a distinctive analgesic profile generated substantial interest.10-12 The mechanisms of action by which these alkaloids exert antinociceptive action were investigated by in vivo and in vitro techniques, particularly regarding their involvement with opioid and glutamatergic pathways.10,13-15 We reported that the natural alkaloid hodgkinsine (1) acts dose-dependently as a potent analgesic in mice.13 Hodgkinsine's effects in thermal models of nociception were naloxone reversible, suggesting that activation of opioid receptors is involved in its mode of action.13 Indeed, binding data revealed that hodgkinsine binds specifically to opioid receptors.15 Hodgkinsine also showed a potent dose-dependent analgesic effect in capsaicin-induced pain,13 suggesting the participation of NMDA receptors in its mode of action.
If this isn't worth looking into, I don't know what is.
One sourse has the common name as perpetua-do-mato, but this seems more commonly applied to Alternanthera brasiliana.
AKA(?): # Cephaelis amoena Bremek.
* Reference article Steyermark, J. et al. 1995. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana Project.
# Cephaelis colorata Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
* Reference article Steyermark, J. et al. 1995. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana Project.
On a side note, perhaps some more research (on our part, and in our own way) into neuro-protective plants such as those that protect against serotonin syndrome, might be very constructive.
More to follow...
Polygala tenuifolia - Chinese Senega, Yuan Zhi
The methanol fraction of an ethanolic extract from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. showed antagonistic action on neurotoxicity induced by glutamate and serum deficiency in PC12 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of six new triterpenoid saponins, onjisaponins V - Z, and Vg (1 - 6), together with ten known saponins (7 - 16). The structures of 1 - 6 were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Screening results indicated that compounds 1 - 16 showed neuroprotective effects against serum deficiency and glutamate at the concentration of 10-5 mol/L.
"Triterpenoid Saponins with Neuroprotective Effects from the Roots of Polygala tenuifolia" Planta Medica 2008; 74: 133-141
* anxiety, often combined with the herbs Kava, Passionflower, Schisandra and Zizyphus
* constrained emotions
* dream-disturbed sleep, often combined with the herb Schisandra
* excessive brooding
* fear, often combined with the herb Schisandra
* insomnia, often combined with the herb Schisandra
* mental disorientation
* neuresthenia, often combined with the herb Schisandra
* palpitations, often combined with the herbs Kava, Passionflower, Schisandra and Zizyphus
* pent-up emotional states
Interesting, I wonder what the mechanism of protection from glutamate toxicity is? Is it an NMDA receptor antagonist? NMDA receptor antagonists include things like ethanol, K, PCP, DXM, Ibogaine etc. Not only this, but some NDMA antagonists have other actions on GABA, 5HT and opioid receptors.
More research needed.
Aquired a couple of new things the other day:
Perovskia atriplicifolia 'Blue Spire' This stuff smells great! Can't wait to test the roots for activity,
Salvia 'Blue Chiquita' This will probably turn out to be nothing spectacular. But no one seems to know what sp it actually is. Have tasted it: Leaves have a strange odour, like both officianalis and Pineapple sage at the same time. It is also fiercely bitter in a way that I have not tasted for a long time. Will post follow ups later;)