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Yeti101

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Blog Entries posted by Yeti101

  1. Yeti101
    The Victorian drug statistics handbook 2003: Patterns of drug use and related harm in Victoria
    http://www.health.vic.gov.au/drugservices/downloads/hbook_2003.pdf Not much use, messy and inconsistent stats - sometimes MDMA is included as a hallucinogen ( eg for health reporting purposes), sometimes not
    2007 National Drug Strategy
    Household Survey
    http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/phe/ndshs07-df/ndshs07-df.pdf Form of hallucinogens used, recent users aged 14 years or older - Datura/angel’s trumpet comes in at a staggering 4.7%, but they admit there isRESEARCH CHEMICAL DRUG USE a "Relative standard error greater than 50%."
    AUSTRALIAN DRUG TRENDS 2010
    Findings from the
    Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDR
    http://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/NDARCWeb.nsf/resources/Conference1/$file/IDRS+&+EDRS+2010.pdf - Not a lot of people using tropanes, though why it was included under the heading of "RESEARCH CHEMICAL DRUG USE" is a mystery...(Thanks for this qualia )
  2. Yeti101
    Louisiana State law banning a number of plants, including such deadly varieties as Mugwort, Lions tail and Damiana: http://www.legis.state.la.us/billdata/streamdocument.asp?did=722309
    and their law that banned Salvia Divinorum, plus datura, galangal (yes, that's right), Calea and many more.
    But don't feel left out, our glorious federal government is giving their own band of stupidity a red-hot go
  3. Yeti101
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8D-475TD0C-5D&_user=10&_coverDate=07%2F08%2F1994&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=2c3bb6eda93339ced20cb5115469e44a&searchtype=a
    Plants used for stress-related ailments in traditional Zulu, Xhosa and Sotho medicine. Part 1: Plants used for headaches Journal of Ethnopharmacology
  4. Yeti101
    Ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants used by the Guaymi Indians in Western Panama. Part I Journal of Ethnopharmacology
    Volume 20, Issue 2, July 1987, Pages 145-171
    http://0-www.sciencedirect.com.library.newcastle.edu.au/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8D-475B9CJ-4J&_user=915767&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F1987&_rdoc=5&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=doc-info%28%23toc%235084%231987%23999799997%23357126%23FLP%23display%23Volume%29&_cdi=5084&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=6&_acct=C000047922&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=915767&md5=93cba574962dc4217baf62b39c6274f4&searchtype=a
    (Hamelia patens)
    The effect of Tulbaghia violacea extracts on testosterone secretion by testicular cell cultures Journal of Ethnopharmacology
    Volume 132, Issue 1, 28 October 2010, Pages 359-361
  5. Yeti101
    http://www.shaman-australis.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=3542&view=findpost&p=31225
    http://www.shaman-australis.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=22932&view=findpost&p=237276
    http://www.shaman-australis.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=19199&view=findpost&p=191169
    http://www.shaman-australis.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=4902&view=findpost&p=44532
    More to come
  6. Yeti101
    "Effect of Triterpenoid Saponins from Bacopa monniera on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice" Yun Zhou1, Ling Peng2, Wei-Dong Zhang3, De-Yun Kong4, Planta Medica, 2009; 75: 568-574
    Given the mode of action this suggests, maybe brahmi can be utilised as a treatment or preventative when anticholinergic compounds are causing problems.
  7. Yeti101
    Evodia fruits (Evodia rutaecarpa, Rutaceae) "evodiamine shows the analgesic action by desensitizing sensory nerves" "The Nociceptive and Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Evodiamine from Fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa in Mice", Yoshinori Kobayashi, Planta Medica 2003; 69: 425-428
  8. Yeti101
    Distribution of Alkaloids in Some Western Australian Plants
    T. E. H. Aplin and J. R. Cannon
    Economic Botany, Vol. 25, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1971), pp. 366-380
    But there was also this: Ochrosia poweri
    Alkaloids of Ochrosia poweri Bailey. II. The 2-acylindole stem-bark bases
    B Douglas, JL Kirkpatrick, BP Moore and JA Weisbach
    Abstract
    Stem-bark of Ochrosia poweri Bailey furnished isoreserpiline, elliptamine, and three new indole alkaloids, ochropamine (C22H26O3N2), ochropine (C23H28O4N2), and powerchrine (C22H26O3N2). Ochropamine and ochropine are 2-acylindole derivatives closely related to the alkaloid vobasine. Their structures have been assigned as (XVI) and (XVII), respectively, by means of a combination of chemical and spectroscopic techniques.
    Australian Journal of Chemistry 17(2) 246 - 255 http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/CH9640246.htm
    Also known as Neisosperma poweri http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/...sosperma~poweri
    Very interesting
  9. Yeti101
    Following the dicussion with Mindexpansion, JDanger, Vertemorphous etc, here is the start of my collection of relevant research. This will be transferred to a thread shortly, and (if I had my way), would be avalable through the eventual (possible) website set up to provide advocacy and information to defend ethnobotanical cultivation and practices. Note that due to my university web access most of these links won't work, so you may have to use the citation provided and find a copy yourself. Enjoy!
    "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse"
    Prof David Nutt FMedScia, , Leslie A King PhDb, William Saulsbury MAc and Prof Colin Blakemore FRSd, The Lancet, Volume 369, Issue 9566, 24 March 2007-30 March 2007, Pages 1047-1053. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=A...1e5ba85078e08ff
    Summary(Abstract)
    Drug misuse and abuse are major health problems. Harmful drugs are regulated according to classification systems that purport to relate to the harms and risks of each drug. However, the methodology and processes underlying classification systems are generally neither specified nor transparent, which reduces confidence in their accuracy and undermines health education messages. We developed and explored the feasibility of the use of a nine-category matrix of harm, with an expert delphic procedure, to assess the harms of a range of illicit drugs in an evidence-based fashion. We also included five legal drugs of misuse (alcohol, khat, solvents, alkyl nitrites, and tobacco) and one that has since been classified (ketamine) for reference. The process proved practicable, and yielded roughly similar scores and rankings of drug harm when used by two separate groups of experts. The ranking of drugs produced by our assessment of harm differed from those used by current regulatory systems. Our methodology offers a systematic framework and process that could be used by national and international regulatory bodies to assess the harm of current and future drugs of abuse.
    "The Use of Hallucinogens in the Treatment of Addiction"
    Author: John H. Halpern
    DOI: 10.3109/16066359609010756, Journal Addiction Research & Theory, Volume 4, Issue 2 June 1996 , pages 177 - 189
    http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~c...84956538~db=all
    Abstract
    Research into treating drug dependence with hallucinogens, although promising, ended with questions still unanswered because of varying, in some cases skeptical, methodology and insufficient adherence to a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Interest is again emerging, especially with the recent patenting in the United States of ibogaine for its apparent anti-craving properties. A review of the literature shows that these properties may be present across the entire family of hallucinogens. Potential efficacy may be tied to their agonism and antagonism at specific serotonin receptor sites. After the administration of a hallucinogen, there is a positive “afterglow” lasting weeks to months which might be extended through repeated dosing. Ibogaine and LSD both have lengthy periods of action, making their application unwieldy. However, tryptamines, such as N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are so short-acting that they could easily be administered in an office setting. With numerous hallucinogens yet to be tested, a hallucinogen might well be discovered with superior anti-craving properties and non-deleterious side-effect profile.
    From harm reduction to human rights: bringing liberalism back into drug reform debates"
    Author: Andrew D. Hathaway
    DOI: 10.1080/0959523021000023270, Drug and Alcohol Review, Volume 21, Issue 4 December 2002 , pages 397 - 404
    http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~c...13659788~db=all
    "Andrew Hathaway notes that harm reduction seldom articulates or acknowledges the moral foundation on which it might build to affect meaningful changes in policy. He argues that despite the rhetorical strengths of empiricism, an openly liberal, human rights orientation imbues rational argument with the principles needed to sustain pragmatic drug reform solutions. Liberalism, with its norms of social tolerance and respect for civil liberties, is presented here as key to the future development of harm reduction discourse as a way of advancing human rights themes in contemporary drug policy debates."
    More to follow.
  10. Yeti101
    In searching for NMDA antagonists in nature, I came across this species. Research on it seems quite new (relatively).
    Planta Medica 2000; 66: 770-772
    "Antinociceptive Profile of Hodgkinsine"

    To further understand the mechanism of analgesic activity and structural requirements of pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloids identified in Psychotria colorata, we here report the analgesic activity of the trimer hodgkinsine on thermal and chemical models of analgesia. Results show that hodgkinsine produces a dose-dependent naloxone reversible analgesic effect in thermal models of nociception, suggesting that activation of opioid receptors participates in hodgkinsine's mode of action. Hodgkinsine shows a potent dose-dependent analgesic activity against capsaicin-induced pain, indicating the participation of NMDA receptors in hodgkinsine-induced analgesia. Such a dual mechanism of action may be of interest for developing innovative analgesics.


    http://0-www.thieme-connect.com.library.ne...055/s-2000-9604
    "Synthesis of All Low-Energy Stereoisomers of the Tris(pyrrolidinoindoline) Alkaloid Hodgkinsine and Preliminary Assessment of Their Antinociceptive Activity"

    The discovery that alkaloids isolated from Psychotria colorata Muell Arg (RUBIACEAE), a medicinal species traditionally used as an analgesic in the Brazilian Amazon,9 have a distinctive analgesic profile generated substantial interest.10-12 The mechanisms of action by which these alkaloids exert antinociceptive action were investigated by in vivo and in vitro techniques, particularly regarding their involvement with opioid and glutamatergic pathways.10,13-15 We reported that the natural alkaloid hodgkinsine (1) acts dose-dependently as a potent analgesic in mice.13 Hodgkinsine's effects in thermal models of nociception were naloxone reversible, suggesting that activation of opioid receptors is involved in its mode of action.13 Indeed, binding data revealed that hodgkinsine binds specifically to opioid receptors.15 Hodgkinsine also showed a potent dose-dependent analgesic effect in capsaicin-induced pain,13 suggesting the participation of NMDA receptors in its mode of action.


    http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/article.cgi/jo.../jo7013643.html
    If this isn't worth looking into, I don't know what is.
    One sourse has the common name as perpetua-do-mato, but this seems more commonly applied to Alternanthera brasiliana.
    AKA(?): # Cephaelis amoena Bremek.
    * Reference article Steyermark, J. et al. 1995. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana Project.
    # Cephaelis colorata Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
    * Reference article Steyermark, J. et al. 1995. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana Project.
    On a side note, perhaps some more research (on our part, and in our own way) into neuro-protective plants such as those that protect against serotonin syndrome, might be very constructive.
    More to follow...
    Links:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychotria_colorata
    http://www.springerlink.com/content/n03277u1l9h3h363/
  11. Yeti101
    Polygala tenuifolia - Chinese Senega, Yuan Zhi
    The methanol fraction of an ethanolic extract from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. showed antagonistic action on neurotoxicity induced by glutamate and serum deficiency in PC12 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of six new triterpenoid saponins, onjisaponins V - Z, and Vg (1 - 6), together with ten known saponins (7 - 16). The structures of 1 - 6 were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Screening results indicated that compounds 1 - 16 showed neuroprotective effects against serum deficiency and glutamate at the concentration of 10-5 mol/L.
    "Triterpenoid Saponins with Neuroprotective Effects from the Roots of Polygala tenuifolia" Planta Medica 2008; 74: 133-141
    http://0-www.thieme-connect.com.library.ne.../s-2008-1034296
    * amnesia
    * anxiety, often combined with the herbs Kava, Passionflower, Schisandra and Zizyphus
    * constrained emotions
    * dream-disturbed sleep, often combined with the herb Schisandra
    * excessive brooding
    * fear, often combined with the herb Schisandra
    * forgetfulness
    * insomnia, often combined with the herb Schisandra
    * mental disorientation
    * neuresthenia, often combined with the herb Schisandra
    * palpitations, often combined with the herbs Kava, Passionflower, Schisandra and Zizyphus
    * pent-up emotional states
    * restlessness
    Interesting, I wonder what the mechanism of protection from glutamate toxicity is? Is it an NMDA receptor antagonist? NMDA receptor antagonists include things like ethanol, K, PCP, DXM, Ibogaine etc. Not only this, but some NDMA antagonists have other actions on GABA, 5HT and opioid receptors.
    More research needed.
  12. Yeti101
    Aquired a couple of new things the other day:
    Perovskia atriplicifolia 'Blue Spire' This stuff smells great! Can't wait to test the roots for activity,
    Salvia 'Blue Chiquita' This will probably turn out to be nothing spectacular. But no one seems to know what sp it actually is. Have tasted it: Leaves have a strange odour, like both officianalis and Pineapple sage at the same time. It is also fiercely bitter in a way that I have not tasted for a long time. Will post follow ups later;)
    Faucaria tigrina
  13. Yeti101
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plectranthus
    Plectranthus Neoclerodane and Labdane Diterpenoids from Plectranthus ornatus http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/j.../np020203w.html
    Plectranthus: A review of ethnobotanical uses http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=A...09068c98d570b7b
    NAtive: Plectranthus graveolens or parviflora
    Plectranthus barbatus, contains forskolin
    graveolens and/or parviflora grows near me......
  14. Yeti101
    I noticed that there seems to be much more effort (per head of community population) going into researching alternative (not currently in popular useage in the west) entheogens in Australian based communities such as the Coroborree, than there is at eDot or TheNook ( at least until recently). European enthnonbotay sites such as Psychonaut.com have virtually no knew research done by members.
    Now there are a number of viable explanations I'm sure.
    But here is what I think: Australia had Salvia Divinorum and Kratom made illegal first, and has more restrictions on what can be openly traded. In the US, Salvia is still legal in most states, as is Kratom.
    Having Salvia and Kratom legal has caused the US communities to rely on them, and having no reason to research alternatives, they didn't. We on the other hand, have had years of incentive to search for alternatives.
    I believe the current increase in interest in alternatives can be mapped against the beginning of the state by state legislation to criminalise Salvia Divinorum, and too a lesser extent Kratom.
    Hypothesis: Hostile legislation drives innovative enthnogenic grassroots research.
    If his is true, then as Salvia and Kratom (in particular, but not exclusively) are legislated against in more states of the US, more people will put effort into finding alternatives. More people looking equals more potential finds.
    A good sociologist should be able test this, especially in retrospective.
    It's interesting to note that in countries where salvia and other entheogens are more widely available commercially, this commercial activity does not seem to drive innovation, but often the opposite. If vendors can keep selling Salvia d and Kratom, then why would they bother doing research, other than to find ever stronger extracts. This strikes me as particularly harmful, as the stronger extracts make easier targets (ironically) for hostile legislation.
    Therefore I'd further hypothesise that commercialisation of trade in ethnobotanicals can have an adverse effect on their legality. Bt this is a bit more complicated. A better way of putting it might be: Commercialisation of trade in ethnobotanicals can have an adverse effect on their legality, in the absence of research aimed at laterally diversifying the range of species and products available, and a willingness of the vendors to embrace this diversification.
    If you chase two rabbits, you will loose them both (Hopi proverb?) The anti-drug/anti-entheogen movement is part of the establishment, and can chase a lot of rabbits at once. In the pat we have given them too few rabbits, now we must endeavour to give them more than even they can chase.
    So where does that leave us in term of what to do next. The first step is to avoid despair. A researcher at my uni just finished his PhD on how innovation drives sustainability at a systemic level. Well, if he is right the legislation is forcing us to become more sustainable. Essentially what we nee to do is this: Research, and lots of it. There are bound to be many more plants out there that are useful to us, and even if they are not, our speculations will make good reading for the people watching us, and they might well spend (waste) some time figuring out that we are barking up the wrong tree.
    Vendors and customers need to increase the breadth of what they sell and what they buy (respectively). This will make it more difficult for the authorities to pick out an easy target.
    Sadly, the hardest thing that we need to do, and this is a lesson that the US community is having a hard time learning, is stop making our activities so media accessible. Without this the previous two suggestions will be less effective, though I believe that they will still work to some extent.
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