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The Corroboree


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Everything posted by mindperformer

  1. mindperformer


    The study I posted found an upregulation of BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and TrkB (tropomyosin receptor kinase B), which means it is neurotrophic, which means it supports the survival and growth of nerve cells!
  2. mindperformer


    I pickle the flowers every year, they taste delicious in vinegar, you could also use the vinegar itself in which you pickled it. Also I extracted the scent from the flowers with:liquid paraffin for 1 day (enfleurage), then extracted the liquid paraffin with 80% alcohol for 2 weeks (shaking well) and concentrated it to the absolute.
  3. mindperformer


    Oxypinnatanine was (as yet) only found in Hemerocallis fulva, which grows wild, here in Vienna on danube island (a long island in the river danube). But maybe nobody searched for it in Hemerocallis citrina. An interesting study of Hemerocallis citrina from 2012: Ethanol extracts from Hemerocallis citrina attenuate the decreases of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TrkB levels in rat induced by corticosterone administration Li-Tao Yi , Huo-Chen Li , Jing Li , Ying Zhou ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hemerocallis citrina, a traditional herbal medicine, has been used for the improvement of behavioral and emotional status in Eastern-Asia countries. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our previous studies have demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of H. citrina flowers (HCE) reversed the behavioral alterations and monoamine neurotransmitter dysfunctions in stressed mice. However, the relation of its antidepressant-like action with neurotrophic molecular expressions remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To clarify this, we explored the effect of HCE (32.5, 65, 130mg/kg, p.o.) on the behavior, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor (TrkB) in depression-like rats induced by exogenous administration of the stress hormone corticosterone (40mg/kg, s.c.). RESULTS: It was observed that repeated administration of corticosterone induced an elevation on the serum corticosterone levels, which caused the abnormalities observed in the sucrose preference test and forced swimming test (FST). Administration of HCE (65 and 130mg/kg) reversed the changes above and up-regulated the BDNF and TrkB receptor protein expressions in the brain region of frontal cortex and hippocampus. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that HCE produce an antidepressant-like effect in corticosterone-induced depression-like model of rats and this effect is at least partly mediated by BDNF-TrkB signaling in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.
  4. mindperformer


    Interesting plant, irie that somebody is exploring it. I have Hemerocallis citrina on the balcony year-round, it tolerates over -15°C in winter and has lovely smelling flowers the whole summer. To my experience the scent of the flowers could be described as (descending dominance): floral (like lilies but softer) - sweet - fresh-citrus (lime) - butter-creamy - fruity (banana) - oceanic I also associate the scent with bathing. The leaves taste slightly like garlic and, like old chinese herbal books state, can make you "see ghosts" if eaten fresh and in large quantities. The term "hallucinogenic" may be a translation error. I only ate them in smaller quantities and could only notice a slightly sedating effect. A japanese study from 2012 found a sedative substance in Hemerocallis fulva: Oxypinnatanine (a kind of amino acid). quote: By the electroencephalographic measurement after intraperitoneally administration and oral administration of oxypinnatanine in mice, the increase in amount of sleep was observed... Also another study found that oxypinnatanine (30 mg/kg) increased the total time of NREM sleep by 84%. More interresting compounds in Hemerocallis fulva: icariside D2 (anticarcinogenic), sallidroside (also in Rhodiola rosea, along with rosavin, as one of the potential compounds responsible for the putative antidepressant and anxiolytic actions.
  5. Sophora toromiro is a small tree which only grows on the island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Isla de Pascua), which is one of the most isolated islands, 3.526 km from the chilean coast, 4.251 km from Tahiti and 2.081 km to Pitcairn, the nearest islands. The first Polynesians settled there between the 5th and the 6th century. There is much to say about the history but this would brake the mold. Interesting is also that the Polynesians highly probable had contact to the Inka, who made voyages into the pacific because the South American batatas were found there. Because of the isolation, less than 30 indigenous seed plants were found, mostly spread by birds, but most important carrier of plant material were the first settlers with the species Broussonetia papyrifera, Ipomoea batatas, Dioscorea sp. and Colocasia esculenta. Toromiro was thought to be extinct in the wild, but then 1955-56 the Norwegian archeologist and explorer Thor Heyerdahl collected seeds from the last survivor of this species. It is from Heyerdahl collection that the present European stocks of cultivated Toromiro descend. Toromiro-seeds: Toromiro-seed-surface, 24-fold: Toromiro-seed-surface, 55-fold:
  6. mindperformer

    Fossil leaves

    I was lucky to find petrified leaves (in a rather hard stone) on a small mountain called 'Roter Berg' in the outskirts of Vienna, the red radiolarites from this mountain were prehistorically used for making spearheads and blades. In some soil layers there were found ammonites too. The plant remains are dated 8,9-9 Million years old and stem from the Pannonium (11,608 - 7,246 million years before present). They may present Lythraceae. Here the microscopic pictures:
  7. yes, this was also the conclusion of R. Carhart-Harris and for me its also very plausible that a more primary consciousness with high entropy was a psychological atavism, early in the evolution of the human brain. It may has to do with the neolithic revolution in the levante, especially mesopotamia with its structured system, the first cities, officials and bookkeeping by cuneiform writing, then also the industrial revolution and so on, so we were forced by the environment to change to a sweet spot with lower entropy.
  8. The ergoline derivatives are only found in fungi world (one exception is the poorly researched and ergoline- containing plant Securidaca longipedunculata, in which no endophytic fungus was found, not yet). Psychoactive plants with Ergolines: In morning glorys (Ipomoea) there were endophytic fungi found: Periglandula ipomoeae In ololiuqui (Turbina syn. Rivea corymbosa) it is the endophytic fungus Periglandula turbinae In Piri-Piri (Cyperus articulatus) some populations are infected with Balansia cyperi Sleepy grass (Achnatherum robustum syn. Stipa robusta) is infected with Neotyphodium funkii Bog Bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) is infected with Monilinia megalospora Claviceps purpurea infects many grains LSA (Ergine) is reported as beeing sedative and weakly hallucinogenic Methylergometrine is vasoconstrictive and 2mg have are LSD- like action according to Ott From my other thread on this plants: Some active constituents: Ergine: (LSA)-Dopamine Antagonism (sedative profile) and only weak 5-HT2A/C-agonism Isoergine: 5-HT2A/C partial agonism Methergine (Methylergometrine): 5-HT2A/C partial agonism and describes as hallucinogenic by J. Ott Ergometrine (Ergonovine): Partial HT2A/C agonism Lysergene: HT2A Partial agonism/full antagonism Festuclavine: HT2A Partial agonism/full antagonism Agroclavine: HT2A Partial agonism/full antagonism Elymoclavine: HT2A Partial agonism/full antagonism, Dopamine Agonism Chanoclavine: D1/2-Dopamine and 5-HT2A/C Agonism Lysergic acid: α-hydroxyethylamide Lysergol: HT2A Partial agonism/full antagonism, HTF1 agonism, Ergotamine: partial 5-HT2A agonism Ergovaline: partial 5-HT2A agonism Isolysergic acid Lysergene: HT2A Partial agonism/full antagonism Setoclavine Isosetoclavine Isolysergol Lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide (LSH) also occurs in the Convolvulaceae and may play a role in their weak psychedelic effects Does somebody know about studies on the distribution of this fungi and their response to environmental and growing conditions of the plants? With sleepy grass Jim DeKorne speculated that the endophytic fungus is distributed by seeds, which are already infected, but he also mentioned that not all populations of sleepy grass were active. I have sleepy grass seeds, stored for 15 years in a small pouch and the endophytic fungus visibly has completely taken over the whole seeds. Ololiuqui (Turbina syn. Rivea corymbosa): Periglandula is connecting with the tissue of ololiuqui leaves by their trichomes. There can be visible darker spots on the downside of the leaves. This should mean that the plant is infected and prudicing the alkaloids (ololiuqui contains them in the leaves and transports them when fruiting to the seeds, storing them in the seeds)
  9. The (functional selective) partial 5-HT2A- agonistic psychedelics are causing the antidepressant activity by enhancing connectiveness in the brain, but decreasing the strong coupling between the DMN (default-mode network) and the MTL (medial temporal lobe), by activating the pyramidal neurons by 5-HT2A- mGlu2- receptor-dimers, by specific activation of it's Phospholipase D- pathway. All in all in the theory of consciousness (R. Carhart-Harris) the psychedelic state is a state of high entropy ('disorder', see primary consciousness), so more connection possibilities are possible (formlessness). Versus: Depressive and sedative states, seizure, inflexibility are states of low entropy (high order, petrification). The sweet spot for 'normal' waking consciousness (constrained, precise, confident cognition, not easily surprised) is between this two extremes but more on the side of low entropy. See D. Nichols and R. Carhart-Harris.
  10. It is unknown why (besides the 5-HT1A- downregulation) also the 5-HT2A- downregulation by SSRIs (and antagonism with fluoxetine) plays a role in the antidepressant effect of SSRIs (see also R. Carhart-Harris on this topic). Because other 5-HT2A- antagonists like atypical antipsychotics augment the therapeutic effects of SSRIs. Again this could also be explained by the fact that although the level of 5-HT2A- receptor density is downregulated after long-term SSRI treatment (according to most studies), their affinity for Serotonin is upregulated. An as we all know there are many studies on the permanent antidepressant effect of serotonergic psychedelics which are selective 5-HT2A- Agonists.
  11. No this long-term- SSRI- change of the 5-HT2A- receptor does not stay / is not permanent. The neuronal changes (also the reason for the SSRI discontinuation syndrome) after discontinuing SSRIs stay for 1-2 weeks, dependent on the SSRI used because sertraline and fluoxetine (but not paroxetine) have active metabolites with half-lives around 2–3 and 7–15 days respectively. The studies on the level of 5-HT2A- receptor density after 3 weeks SSRI treatment are paradox, some found an decrease and some an decrease, however all in all it is the receptor-binding-affinity specific for serotonin which is upregulated, like the level of Serotonin itself is also upregulated. Additionally some SSRIs like Fluoxetine have 5-HT2A- antagonistic activity. In the first 0-3 weeks SSRI treatment the situation is completely different, the presynaptic 5-HT1A-autoreceptors downregulate the serotonin- level. This lower serotonin- level means that Serotonin has a lower competitiveness to suppress psychedelic tryptamines from the receptor, so the tryptamines are potentiated in the first 0-3 weeks SSRI treatment.
  12. @ Alchemica: I also investigated Galphimia glauca there seem to be many studies, attesting sedative, anxiolytic, anti-allergenic and antidepressant activity. It is distributed in Central America and is also used traditionally. Galphimin B is sedative and anxiolytic and it is highly possible that it is an Antagonist of the 5-HT1A- receptor. But: It also acts on 5-HT2A- receptors, highly likely also as Antagonist, whis is also one of the main mechanisms (besides Dopamine- antagonism) of anti-psychotics (neuroleptics), this makes it not so useable for me personally.
  13. There were some experiments with this plant reacting to music, it changes its movement dependent on the music played, although it wasn't possible to find a specific pattern, see youtube videos
  14. Because the name of the thread is Emotional plants, there is one plant which fits exactly: The Telegraph plant (Codariocalyx motorius syn. Desmodium gyrans): It is ne of the few plants capable of rapid movement of its leaves. The small lateral leaflets , they rotate constantly in a period of 3-5 minutes (visible to the naked eye), dependent on the temperature. The big leaflets also move but much slower, they have a sleeping position in the night. It is medium difficult to germinate and a littlebit difficult as young plant but stable and easy to grow when its getting older, most important is high humidity and at least room temperature. The leaves, sprout and root contain DMT and 5-MeO-DMT. In the leaves they found the alkaloids: DMT: 0.0041 % DMT-N-oxide: 0.0090 % Bufotenine: 0.0034 % 5-MeO-NMT: 0.0049 % 5-MeO-DMT: 0.0018 % and Flavonoids (major compounds): Luteolin and its glycoside, Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, Scutellarein-6-O-glucuronide So it is a rather strange coincidence that the only constant moving plant visible to the naked eye is also producing this psychedelics / neurotransmitters. The Tryptamines may play a role like Serotonin found in plants: Phytoserotonin also plays a role in the following aspects of plant function: Growth regulation Xylem sap exudation Flowering Ion permeability Plant morphogenesis Regulation of ripening
  15. @ Alchemica: thanks for the like, I can recommend the studies from R. Carhart-Harris and D. Nichols, they are the newest explanations of the action of Psychedelics on the 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors. The lectures from R. Carhart-Harris can also be found on youtube.
  16. mindperformer


    Potency of Cathinone and Cathine vs. Ephedrine and Amphetamine: This can be explained by the different affinity for Dopamine-, Norepinephrine- and Serotonin- releasing:
  17. mindperformer


    The Cathinone and Cathine have very uneven distribution in the plant:
  18. I forgot the very interesting SSRI- interaction with hallucinogens. I know someone who tried mushrooms on SSRI medication and felt nothing. This phenomenon is poorly explored. There are many reports of people on SSRI- medications who have no effects from LSD, Psilocin and other Tryptamines but yet they had effects from phenylethylamines like Mescaline. Again Tryptamines could be regarded as partial Agonists with high functional selectivity and Phenethylamines are full agonits. Under SSRI- medication longer than 3 weeks, the presynaptic 5-HT1A- receptors (reduce Serotonin levels) are back-regulated, for the 5-HT2A- receptors the situation under SSRIs is more complicated. It seems that the population density of them is down-regulated and the downstream effectors are also changed (GIRK- channels), but the receptor-affinity for Serotonin is up-regulated, so they don't have the right constitution for Tryptamines anymore. Phenylethalamines like Mescaline and DOM bypass this shift in receptor constitution and still hav hallucinogenic action while under SSRI treatment. I had my own experience where I took the SSRI Citalopram for only 2 days, when LSD was very much potentiated. According to some studies in the first 3 weeks SSRI treatment there is no dysregulation of 5-HT2A- receptors, instead hallucinogens are potentiated.
  19. mindperformer


    I made some calculations based on the Cathine / Cathinone content and also searched the literature for dosages of leaves, which were hard to find. I came to the conclusion that you need 100 - 200 g fresh Kath- leaves for one dose. Dried leaves have a 3,3 times lower weight than fresh leaves. Calculating with the effective Cathinone- dose for 60 kg body weight whould be 310 g fresh leaves for an action which is comparable with Amphetamine. To factor also the Cathine content into the calculation (which only has a tenth of the efficacy of Cathinone), it has a 3-times higher content in the fresh leaves, in dried leaves the Cathine- content is even higher because of the conversion on Cathinone to Cathine during the drying process. Because 100 g Kath leaves contain 83 - 120 mg Cathine and an active dose of Cathine is 16 - 53 mg. So it can be concluded that: although there can be felt minimal effects from 10-15g Kath leaves, for medium strength effects there must be consumed at least 50 - 100 g leaves.
  20. The functional selectivity of the Ligands (partial vs. full Agonists, silent vs. active Antagonists, inverse Agonists etc.) seems to play a major role. There are many transcription factors / downstream effectors of the receptor which could be activated or not by 5-HT1A- Ligands, also there are interactions with 5-HT2A-Agonists like the Tryptamines (partial agonists) and Phenylethylamines (mainly full agonists). These interaction are based on the co-expression of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A- receptors in mPFC (medial PreFrontal Cortex, self-consciousness, addiction,...) pyramidal neurons. 5-HT2A- receptors excite and 5-HT1A receptors inhibit the activity of pyramidal neurons. The overall influence of mPFC neurons on serotonergic function is excitatory. As there are many downstream effectors there are also differences between the partial agonists but generally some compounds are considered full agonists (efficacy relative to endogenous agonists like Serotonin). Full 5-HT1A- agonists are: 8-OH-DPAT, Annonaine, Nornuciferine, Asimilobine and Flibanserine Partial 5-HT1A- agonists: Vilazodone, Buspirone, Rauwolscine, 5-MeO-DMT, LSD, 10-Shoagol (in dried ginger), 1-Dehydro-6-gingerdione (in ginger), Cannabidiol (CBD, weak agonist), DPT, AMT, Bufotenin, MDMA, Psilocybine, Psilocin and Quetiapin. Some 5-HT1A agonists can effect the release of adrenaline, dopamine and acetylcholine, the last two meinly in the prefrontal cortex. They are anxiolytic, antidepressant, antiemetic, analgetic, reduce eggression, enhance sociability, reduce impulsiveness and addiction-related craving, extend the REM-dream phase. A main part of the actions of 5-HT1A- agonists is based on reinforced Oxytocin- and Beta-Endorphine- release and promotion of BDNF- production. However only high dosages of Agonists seem to have relevant effects because the presynaptic autoreceptors lessen the effects. (MDMA acts as Serotonin- and Oxytocin- releaser, because of its 5-HT1A- action). As you already mentioned 5-HT1A- Antagonists reinforce hallucinogenic effects of psychedelics and many agonists buffer 5-HT2A- mediated hallucinogenic effects. DMT and LSD, despite their high potency, are also partial agonists on the 5-HT1A- R., and DMT behaves as full agonist in the adenylate cyclase (a second messenger) assay. Furthermore these receptors are edited at the level of mRNA to produce spatially restricted isoforms, each with a different activity. Inverse 5-HT1A- Antagonists: Spiperone Neutral / silent 5-HT1A- Antagonists: WAY 100,635 and UH-301 (both enforce hallucinogenic action of 5-HT2A- partial agonists) I think 5-HT1A agonism plays a role in the lacking of tolerance of DMT and the low side-effect profile of DMT, Psilocin and LSD vs. more risky Bromo-Dragonfly and most Phenylethylamines, but there are also differences in functional selectivity of 5-HT2A- R. involved (PLC vs. PLA-2 and PLD). Most promising natural 5-HT1A- ligands: Julibroside and Quercitrin in Albizia julibrissin. This plant triggers the LSD- effect as mentioned in the DMT Nexus- forum
  21. mindperformer

    Toromiro - the tree from Easter Island and other Sophoras

    Hi Day Tripper, could be a Sophora microphylla phenotype with dark seeds like on this site: http://inetgardens.com/kowhai-culture.htm The flowers and leaves look similar
  22. mindperformer

    Toromiro - the tree from Easter Island and other Sophoras

    Thanks for identificational hints Roberto. I think there is a great possibility that you are right... I found this study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4272316/ I think your displayed seeds labelled "Titze" are from the "Titze line" and cultivated for years in the nursery of Pablo Titze in Talagante, Chile, it is the most common line of allegedly Sophora toromiro in Chile. In contrast to the "original" S. toromiro from Heyerdahl's seed-collection (now the population at the Botanical Garden Göteborg), the Titze-line seems rather different in morphology. The Titze may be a hybrid with C. macrocarpa and C. cassiodies. It is also the Toromiro-line wof the Instituto Forestal ((INFOR), Chile for a future reintroduction attempt. But: My specimen never flowered, so comparison with this study is difficult. Regarding to the leaflets I can's see similarities to Titze, so I will add a foto from my plants which is now 6 years old. Unfortunately I'm fighting against spider mites. For comparison, the original species from Göteborg: https://hiveminer.com/Tags/toromiro
  23. mindperformer

    Psychoactive Orchids

    Vanda tessellata / roxburghii: This orchid is in medical use in Westbengal, India and Burma. When bees sip nectar from the flower, they crash down narcotized. Ayurvedic shamans use the flowers in a decoction, to put their patients in a hypnotic narcosis. The flowers are also used as aphrodisiac which is already clinically tested. The plant contains heptacosane, octacosanol, alkaloids, glycosides among others. The action is based on a stimulation of cholinergic neurons. Dose: 5-10g root (dried). Oncidium cebolleta- flower: (syn. Oncidium longifolium) Used by the tarahumara in Mexico als Peyote- substitute. There were found phenanthrene- alkaloids. Epipactis helleborine- flowers: Wasps are intoxicating themselfes with the nectar, become sluggish and crash down. The nectar contains the strongest opiate found in nature, oxycodone (not the strongest opioid because there are more potent peptides in the secretion of the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor). In the nectar there was found alcohol, indol-alcaloids and methoxyeugenol too. Cypripedium pubescens- root (cultivated): An orchid, which has become rare in nature, it is conservated. The north-american indians use the root to balance nerve-tensions and to counteract anxiety. In the dried tuber were found essential oils, resins, glycosides and tannines. It acts as a sedative, antidepressant, hypnotic and spasmolytic. High doses can be hallucinogenic. A normal dose can be 2-4g of the dried tubers. Gastrodia elata: An orchid which live parasitically on the fungus Armillaria mellea, which is on his part an parasite on trees. The tuber of the orchid is used in the traditional chinese medicine because of sedative, aphrodisiac and mentally strengthening actions. It has also anticonvulsant, antiinflammatory, neuroprotective and antidepressive actions. There was found the anxiolytic phenol gastrodin. Together with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde it inhibits the breakdown of GABA. The plant has also action of glutamate-receptors. Dendrobium nobile- hybrid: It contains terpenalkaloids like nobilin and others. There are new reports on a psychoactive action like Cannabis from this orchid (with munchies, narcotic components,...): http://psychotropico...drobium-nobile/ But: Dendrobine is a GABA-antagonist. Dendrobium loddigesii- Stengel aus einer TCM-Apotheke: Dendrobium- species contain dendrophenol and also phenanthrenes. Both Dendrobiums are called "shi hu" in TCM. There are many reports of the aphrodisiac action. Dendrobium teretifolium is used as analgetic. Anoectochilus formosanus: contains GHB-like substances (4-hydroxybutanoic acids): http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/18404313 It is a small decorative orchid from Taiwan, which is used because of liver-tonic, immunstimulating, antioxydative,... actions and is called "King Medicine". Bletilla striata: is described in China, Tibet and Mongolia as euphoriant, blood-purifying and blood-clotting. Cymbidium ensifolium: The intoxicating fragrance was inhaled by the japanese empress. Eulophia cucullata: Used in Africa as antiepileptic Goodyera schlechtendaliana: Sedative and anticonvulsant because of its goodyerin- content. It also contains the "GHB- glycoside" goodyeroside B. Jumellea fragrans syn. Angraecum fragrans: In Mauritius there is made a sedative tea from this plant. Tridactyle tricuspis: In Afrika used against madness Ghost-orchid (Polyrhiza lindenii): Used psychoactive in the film "Adaptation".
  24. mindperformer

    Calamus- an analgesic stimulant

    Calamus is known for its stimulating effect when smoked. The Cree Indians of Northern Alberta chew the fresh rootstock of the Sweet Flag-calamus under the name Weekas. It has been called "the coca of the north" because of its stimulant properties, which are known to many tribes. Also hallucinogenic properties are reported from sweet flag- calamus, which is not the normal north-american species. They also use it as an analgesic, against fatigue and exhaustion, to prevent and to cure a hangover and to "travel great distances without touching the ground. Acorus gramineus syn. A. tatarinowii is used in Chinese traditional medicine. It (the oil and decoction) has antiepileptic, anti-convulsive, anti-diarrhea, effects and can balance the excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in brain. It contains 2,3% Methyleugenol, 4,4% cic-Methylisoeugenol, 0,8% trans-Methylisoeugenol, 4,5% gamma-Asarone and 66,1% beta-Asarone and traces of Isoacoramone, cis-Epoxyasarone and others. It heightens sexual desire, works as an antiseptic analgesic, nervous system stimulant, perception-altering, antispasmodic digestive, increases the hypnotic effect of barbiturates and alcohol and can be hallucinogenic. Some compounds in the essential oil are potent antagonists of NMDA-receptors on the PCP-site (like Ketamine): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11253173 and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11025136 The extract was also tested positive for specific binding to striatal dopamine D1 and D2 and GABA A- receptors. A korean alcoholic beverage with it is called liquor of the immortals, having similar effects like absinthe and in old China it was used in shamanism. My Acorus gramineus- plant: Acorus calamus var. calamus, the eurasian calamus is also distributed here in Austria in swamps. Calamus has its origin in India and possibly the muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) has distributed it to North-America. It is magically attracted by the rhizome and does not only eat it, but also dig it to make reserves. In Kashmir the root is associated with happiness. In europe it is a component of many bitters and sometimes sold as tea against debility, nervousness, stomach-cramps, nervine and aphrodisiac. Collected rhizomes: Acorus calamus var. americanus (does not contain the carcinogenic cis-Isoasarone): It is possible that Asarone is converted to TMA (a hallucinogen) in our body.
  25. Incarvillateine has a very strange structure: The highly substituted 1,3-dicarboxy-cyclobutane Incarvillateine occurs in the chinese plant Incarvillea sinensis with the traditional names Cheron, Jiao hao, Tougucao and Yuan bian zhong. The name of the genus, Incarvillea, came from the botanist Petrus d'Incarville who lived in Peking from 1740 to 1757. The plant is distributed from Yunnan in the south to Siberia in the north and Tibet in the West. Incarvillea sinensis also contains the macrocyclic spermine alkaloids Incasines A,B, C and Verballocine, the monoterpene alkaloids Incarvilline, Incarvine A,B,C,D and Methoxycarvillateine and the flavonoid Isoliquiritin. It is one of the traditional herbal medicines in China, Tibet and Mongolia and is mainly used to treat rheumatism and relieve pain. Besides it is udes for detoxification, against cough, as laxative, jointache, cramps, eczemas, inflammations in the mouth, carbuncle, skin ailments, spongy gums, ulcers and wounds in chinese medicine. And against chronic bronchitis, dry cough, lung abscess, otitis media, veneral disease, flatulence and dry faecal in mongolian medicine. It is used in dosages from 5-15g, cooked in water or external use by a wrap with the dry powder. The analgesic index (ED50) of Incarvillateine is better than Morphine (1,06-1,33 times) and appears to have a lower ceiling effect than Morphine! Responsible for the analgesic properties is an agonistic action on mu- and kappa-opioid- receptors and an antagonistic on adenosine-receptors: http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/16204962 In my experience 2g of the herb were definively analgesic and opioid. In chinese, mongolian and tibetan medicine many Incarvillea- species are used medicinally, especially as analgesic: Incarvillea delavayi which contains the analgesic monoterpene alkaloid Delavayine A. Incarvillea arguta which contains the bacteriostatic and sedative Argutone. Incarvillea dissectifoliola which contains the monoterpene glycoside Dissectol A. My Incarvillea sinensis- plants: And dry Incarvillea delavayi- leaves: