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Australian Safrole Containing Plants - the new faq


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#1 ausrom

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Posted 20 April 2007 - 02:47 PM

Australian Safrole Containing Plants

-=] ausaf - 2007 [=-


"following on from the direction of the safrole faq is research report information covering 9 known species - (8 native) growing in australia"

http://ausaf.awardspace.info/

get it while you can, free distro

contents:

Forward


Perspectives

The Basics
Availability
Traditional Use
Modern Use
A Commercial History
Chemotypes
Toxicity
Medical Aid

Plant Sources

Atherosperma moschatum
Cinnamomum baileyanum
Cinnamomum camphora
Cinnamomum laubatii
Cinnamomum oliveri
Doryphora aromatica
Doryphora sassafras
Eremophila longifolia
Zieria (Rutaceae)


Further Resources


Edited by ausrom, 20 April 2007 - 02:49 PM.


#2 Ace

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Posted 20 April 2007 - 02:54 PM

Welcome ausrom! Thanks for the link :)

Just incase the link is broken over time:

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Australian Safrole Containing Plants

-=]ausaf - 2007 [=-

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Forward

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Perspectives

The Basics

Availability

Traditional Use
Modern Use
A Commercial History
Chemotypes
Toxicity
Medical Aid


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plant Sources


Atherosperma moschatum
Cinnamomum baileyanum
Cinnamomum camphora
Cinnamomum laubatii
Cinnamomum oliveri
Doryphora aromatica
Doryphora sassafras
Eremophila longifolia
Zieria (Rutaceae)



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Further Resources






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Forward:


Hello, and welcome to what i hope provides an informative experience as well as a resource for those times to come...

Here is the compilation of several years research into this area, and the author is keen to have been able to make this information available via the Internet, to the general public, in the hope of facilitating a broader appreciation for more of the beautiful and unique plants growing here in the land of oz. While illustrating an old saying that the difference between a "healing remedy" and a "deadly poison" might merely be the dose.

Most if this information as been "outsourced" from others research with little original content by the author other than the odd comment and nature of presentation. Thus many thanks go out to those who made this possible by providing the inspiration, framework and connections which came together for the creation of this document.

So sit back, get uncomfortable, and let's get into it... ;p - enjoy






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Perspectives:



The Basics:


Safrole is an natural constituent of a number of plant oils and spices from around the world such as nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, anise, black pepper and sweet basil.

Alone it takes the form of an oil at room temperature with the uniquely marking smell similiar to root beer or sasparilla, this is partly due to it being the major component of sassafras oil which itself lend the fragrance to root beer.
It's density is greater than water so it would generally sit as a fraction (layer) below water apon distillation rather than on top as most other oils will.



Availability:


Safrole is no longer available for sale to the general public or business world (par approved research) due to severe legal classifications and restrictions being applied to it to control the sale, possession, production, and importation within Australian as well as most other countries.
This began happenning around the 1950' s and 60's
Whether a safrole containing oil or plant is illegal in Australia to possess and/or sell such as sassafrass or nutmeg oil is unknown to me, though commented to as not so, particularly in the later case of a plant.
There are detailed below species containing safrole within Australia growing in some cases prolifically and all but one native. These are protected as are most native trees theses days to anyone being permitted to prune or fell them, even those outside of national and state parks/reserves.
Permits have and may be granted to collectors for seed collecting of requested species through nurseries, as not all those listed below would be commercially available.
Many of these plants could make a worthy addition to a garden be that ornamental or produce purposes, and could even be considered as an alternative crop if more land is available. These commercial aspects are touched on in the "Modern Day Uses" section below.
Currently there are international regulations in place to set, reduce and eliminate safrole levels being allowed in foodstuffs and beverages via ingredients containing safrole, and pure safrole itself may not be added at all.



Traditional Use:

There are many reports of the worlds native peoples and developed civilizations using safrole containing preparations for therapeutic uses, including both Australian aboriginals and the more relatively recent settlement/immigrating populations.


Some of the ways both native aboriginals and other cultures have used these plants include making an infusion such as tea, crushing the leaves followed by inhalation, and burning the plant pieces for smoke.

Australian Aborgnals used some of the plants listed below in preparations for eye, skin and body washes and as a counter irritant while in.the desert among other places.

It is worth noting here that an infusion or tea/brew may lead to the loss via "distillation" (evaporation) of safrole and other essential oils in the steam if much steam is produced for an extended period in an unsealed/uncovered vessel..

Another issue here with this preparation method could be the possible extraction of plant chemicals, such as alkaloids from the source material. Which in certain cases including some of the plants mentioned here, have a relatively specific enough toxicity which has been reported to lead to side-effects and/or possible health complications. This would generally not be an issue if making a steam distilled oil.

Sassafras (an american safrole containing tree) was used by Native Americans for many purposes, primarily for infections, gastrointestinal problems and as a spring blood tonic. It is still used today in many parts of the Appalachian Mountains, where the root is locally gathered.

Other safrole bearing plants have also been used since way back by chinese herbalist practitioners..
Topically, sassafras oil could relieve the pain and inflammation of insect bites. It may have some anti-infective properties, which might also help to prevent infection of bites and minor skin rashes. And has such been used as a topical antiseptic, a pediculicide (head and body lice treatment) and washes used to soothe the eyes.

It has also been used by alternative medicine for treating high blood pressure, rheumatism, arthritis, gout, menstrual problems, colds, flu, and bronchitis, as a diuretic, for urinary tract disorders and kidney problems. Also as a liniment, and the treatment of bruises, swellings and skin complaints.

Other herbal practitioners gave it to women to ease painful menstruation and help their recovery from childbirth.

The volatile oil (sassafras) was also used in dentistry in combination with cloves and other herbs to relieve toothache. By far the most common "western" use of sassafras, however, was to flavor root beer, and for a Sassafras tea, sold under the name saloop, which became a very popular beverage in London.



Modern Use:

The root bark and root pith, in areas, may still be used in alternative medicine as an alternative, anodyne, antiseptic, aromatic, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulant and vasodilator. An Infusion is used to treat gastrointestinal complaints, colds, liver and kidney ailments, rheumatism skin eruptions and as a blood purifier.

Safrole is an important raw material for the chemical industry because of two derivatives: heliotropin, which is widely used as a fragrance and flavoring agent, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a vital ingredient of pyrethroid insecticides. Natural pyrethrum in particular would not be an economical insecticide without the addiction of PBO as a synergist and the future of the natural pyrethrum industry is linked to the continued availability of PBO. Safrole has many fragrance applications in household products such as floor waxes, polishes, soaps, detergents, and cleaning agents. Oil of sassafras, which contains safrole, was formerly used to flavor some soft drinks, such as root beer. However, as of 1960, this use was no longer permitted in the U.S.A

Further information detailing "old fashioned root beer" recipes involving sassafras root are available, online, thanks to numerous home brew enthusiasts from around the world.

A Commercial History (of the north American Sassafras albidum):

How it all is supposed to have happened: Internet sources (which may or may not be accurate but are often cross-derived and, therefore, are often at least mercifully consistent) have it that Europeans exploring North America in the early 1500’s (probably the Spanish in Florida?) observed the medicinal use of (Sassafras albidum) by Native Americans, but thought that the plant was the East Indian cinnamon tree. This is understandable because, at the time, they thought that they were in India. Whatever, Sir Walter Raleigh, a one-time favorite of Queen Elizabeth I who was later executed for treason, is said to have created a major stir when he brought (Sassafras albidum) back to England from the “Virginia Colony”, in the very early 1600’s.

Europeans got the idea that (Sassafras albidum) was a “wonder drug” that could cure almost anything, even the dreaded “new” disease syphilis which had appeared in Europe shortly after Christopher Columbus’ first return voyage. Even better yet, the belief somehow developed that (Sassafras albidum) would retard old age. (Sassafras albidum) does seem to have antibacterial and antiviral properties that are good, for example, at warding off colds.

So, by the mid-1600’s, (Sassafras albidum) became the Americas’ number two export to Europe; number one being tobacco, and number three probably being cane sugar products such as molasses and rum. (The sugar cane itself probably originated in Polynesian but was definitely imported to Jamaica by Christopher Columbus in the 1500’s).

Following its stunning European debut, various parts of the (Sassafras albidum) tree came to be widely used in food and medicine. Sassafras oil, extracted from the root bark, was used to flavor many things. Root beer was named for the beverage’s major flavoring agents which, you guessed it, were the roots of our friend (Sassafras albidum), combined with fermented molasses (from cane sugar). People also ingested gallons of sassafras tea, believed to be healthful as well as delicious. (Sassafras albidum) leaves were ground up and widely sold as “filè” powder, a major Cajun seasoning and thickening agent.

This all went on for some time until its use was prohibited.


Chemotypes:

As with many plants containing essential oils, there can exist multiple "chemotypes" within a species. The composition of an oil extracted can vary depending on many factors resulting in plants of the same "cataloged" species and living in that same area having differing levels of constituents.


The term chemotype is used to refer to a "sub-group" of a species which illustrates similar constitution.


Apart from variation in chemotypes, essential oil yield and composition and can vary due to factors such as:


time of day harvested
climate and rainfall
growing conditions
flowering and seeding
part of plant extracted
health and age of plant

When summarising the reports outlined below, generally only the chemotype with the highest levels of safrole is mentioned, so there quite often is results for the same "species"from a differing region for example that yield nearly no safrole.




Toxicity:

An awfully lot of reports have been released containing results relating towards the toxic properties of safrole. Mostly supported by grants from various Foundations and Institutes. This has sparked some controversy and debate among various circles, as some of these provided the needed stepping stone to what has become a worldwide outlawing of safrole. These early experiments simply involved exposing various animals and isolated biological cells to enough safrole to give a result that would prove its toxicity. Most compounds both organic and not are "toxic" at high enough levels... even water. And what we may be seeing here in the form of "toxicity" may just be an over-amplified expression of what could have been and may still be an important part of human evolution. And that it could be seen as responsible for such serious and detrimental traits may simply be a result of how far out of context and exaggerated the potential levels of exposure have been taken. The human body and all living things have been seen and commented on as having astounding potential for adaptability and resilience, if not just for their survival amongst such a modernly polluted environment, full of things with well recorded toxicities and dangers that have been recorded on par and beyond that of safrole. Perhaps its banning and disregard came so easily to those responsible under the light that it had no



Interestingly enough though, allot of the new reports being released, which are more forward thinking and at home with a "ying yang" perspective on the human multi-verse are those coming out of china. The "some could say" mekka of medicinal herbal practice. Very much connected with a long traditional and possibly still modern day use of safrole containing plants.


Here is some extracts from just a few:


Firstly here's a concise summary of type: "alarmist research", from a report on the safety of the presence of safrole in food ingredients by the "Scientific Committee on Food" (part of the European Commission):


An oral LD50 has been reported to be 1950 mg/kg bw for rats and 2350 mg/kg bw for mice. Compared with ...


Liver tumors in mice and rats by oral administration (sometimes as high as 5000mg/kg); safrole also produces liver and lung tumors in male infant mice following its subcutaneous injection. The carcinogenic potency appears to be relatively low and dependent on the metabolism. Mice appear more susceptible than rats to the carcinogenic effects of safrole.
Safrole is metabolically activated through the formation of intermediates able to directly react with DNA. Safrole is genotoxic in various in vitro mammalian cell systems causing induction of gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations, UDS and SCE. Several metabolites of safrole are directly mutagenic in Salmonella. In vivo, safrole was able to induce chromosome aberrations, SCE and DNA adducts in the liver of rats. -SCF/CS/FLAV/FLAVOUR/6 ADD3 Final , 9 January 2002

The following gives a simple summary of the commonly accepted process safrole undergoes inside the body leading to damage:

Safrole is metabolized in the liver mainly by two pathways, one of these producing 1-hydroxysafrole which has been shown to be the preponderant proximate carcinogenic metabolite, which, following a further biotransformation can bind covalently to cellular DNA. -Toxicology Letters 75 (1995) 201-207



Here's an example of some "new wave" research attaining to monitor safrole's presence via subtler internal response's rather than the extreme end case scenario of cancer and death:
Safrole was an inhibitor of human (cytochrome P450) enzymes primarily responsible for the oxidation (breaking down) of both internal (endogenous) and external (exogenous) chemicals including steroids, drugs, and chemical carcinogens.
Methylenedioxybenzenes are the substrates, inducers, and inhibitors of P450. These P450 forms are responsive to the inductive and inhibitory effects of xeno-biotics including plant constituents. -Food and Chemical Toxicology 43 (2005) 707-712



This next one is interesting as it points towards evidence of anti-oxidants playing a role in reducing and blocking potential damage, and that the lack of these due to depletion within a bodies natural healing/growth/connection systems, sheer overwhelment and/or non-function may be what then leads to the more serious side of safrole's catalytic potential: (once again, we have the more comprehensive investigation of the subtleties)

Safrole is a weak hepatocarcinogen, and its carcinogenic effect has been linked to the formation of stable safrole-DNA adducts. Results demonstrate that safrole has the potential to induce oxidative damage in vivo, and this damage may be blocked by antioxidant detoxification systems. This safrole induced oxidative damage may be involved in the hepatocarcinogenic effects of safrole. The most effective antioxidant tested was the precursor of glutathione, NAC (N-acetylcysteine) which acts as a cysteine prodrug and can enhance GSH synthesis, a molecule which plays a central role in the elimination of electrophilic xenobiotics and in the defense of the cell against oxidative stress. The generation of oxidative stress has been linked to chemical carcinogenis.
In vitro, safrole can be biotransformed to a redox-active o-quinone which may generate ROS (reactive oxygen species) and forms the basis of safrole-induced oxidative damage. This may explain why NAC was most efficient in reducing both of the safrole-induced oxidative markers in vivo since o-quinone is scavenged efficiently by GSH.
Two other antioxidants tested which reduced the safrole-induced formation of biomarkers LHP(representative of either a less sever injury, or an early step in ROS-mediated safrole-induced hepatic injury.) but not 8-OH-dG (correlated to cyctotoxicity) where: vitamin E and deferoxamine, yet for a shorter time than NAC could.
This study suggested that safrole caused lipid per-oxidation and oxidation DNA damages in rat liver. In addition, this study also demonstrated that this damage was rapidly repaired within 15 days after safrole treatment. -Food and Chemical Toxicology 37 (1999) 697-702



The following is an inspiring illustration of the bodies dynamicity, such that we have catalytic cell transformation into neurons rather than self-destruction if the levels of in this case "safrole oxide" are low enough. (safrole oxide has piperonyl and epoxy structures, which are important in many compounds with physiological activity.)


Low concentrations of safrole oxide have been shown to induce HUVEC (human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cell) to phenomenonly make an irreversible switch from one type of already differentiated cell to another type of normal differentiated cell in postnatal life.
In this case a transdifferentiation to neuron-like cells via the depression of intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels, which act as a intracellular messengers in signal transduction pathways.
Recent studies show that productions of ROS lead to cell death or promote dysfunction. And that elevating ROS levels triggered apoptosis (natural self destruction) in HUVEC's.
Thus illustrating a critical balance between the synthesis and destruction of ROS is likely to regulate the balance among the cellular process of proliferation , differentiation, and apoptosis.
In addition, recently, ROS was suggested as inducers of neuronal differentiation, and some findings indicate that HUVEC's have the potential to differentiate into smooth muscle-like cells.
It has also been reported that some antioxidants can induce MSC's (marrow stromal cells) and HUVEC's to differentiate into neurons too. -Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1763 (2006) 247-253


And finally from a rather clarifying paper:
(L. S. Gold, et.al., Science, vol. 258, pg 261, 9 Oct 92, "Rodent Carcinogens: Setting Priorities");

Comparing instances of the cancer development response levels in rats to a life time of daily being fed synthetic or/vs natural carcinogens found from various sources, (including safrole in root beer).

A relative likely-hood of carcinogenicity can be illustrated such that 1 bottle (375ml) of traditional root beer containing 6.6mg of safrole has the equivalence to:

2 Whole Apples, (Caffeic acid 48.8 mg)
6 Whole Carrots, (Caffeic acid 34.5 mg)
10.64ml of Wine, (1.28 ml ethanol)
25.29ml of Beer, (1.28 ml ethanol)
1/2 a Cup of Coffee from 2 g, (3.6 mg Caffeic acid)
118ml of Diet Cola, (31.66 mg Saccharin)
Note though that:
Non monotonic effects occur in fruits and vegetables, which actually reduce your risk of cancer (when taken in moderation) due to the presence of anti carcinogenic antioxidants and vitamins.

"though it (safrole/sassafras) is less likely to cause cancer than alcohol."




Medical Aid:
Firstly i dont really think this is an issue, but if for some reason you wnid up with a large enough exposure to safrole somehow, here's the medico talk:

(but also note though that if a humans LD50 to safrole is similar to a rats (it may be higher or lower), a 70kg adult would have to consume 138 grams (alot) of safrole to give themselves a 50% chance of survival or death)

Expectations (prognosis):

Deaths have been reported from taking sassafras or sassafras oil by mouth. Potentially life-threatening side effects such as rapid heartbeat and paralysis are also reported to have occurred. Ingesting or applying safrole-containing products may produce drowsiness, excessive sweating, high blood pressure, and vomiting.

Survival past 48 hours is usually a good sign that recovery will occur. If damage to the kidneys has occurred, it may take several months to heal.

Symptoms:

* Lungs
o Shallow breathing
o Rapid breathing
* Skin
o Burns
* Gastrointestinal
o Abdominal pain
o Diarrhea
o Nausea
o Vomiting
* Heart and blood
o Rapid heartbeat
o Low blood pressure
* Nervous system
o Unconsciousness
o Dizziness
o Hallucinations

Possible Treatment:

Consider seeking medical advice and/or treatment...




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Plant Sources:






Atherosperma moschatum


Tasmania, Victoria and N.S.W. as far north as the Barrington Tops district


“The leaves yielded from 1.7 - 2.65% of oil, with an approximate safrole level of 5-10%."

Identification by fractional distillation followed by b.p. , m.p. and density tests.

(Scott, J.Chem.Soc. 1912, 101, 1612)
Cinnamomum baileyanum


Far north Queensland from Cooktown to Capeyork, and Fraser Island in the south

“The yield of bark oil was 0.6% of which 46% was safrole, the leaf oil yield of 0.1-0.3% had none.”
Analysis by GC and GC/MS.
(J. Essent. Oil Res., 13, 332-335, 2001)

Cinnamomum camphora


Most of habitable Australia



Though this is a relatively recently introduced species it has spread so much to the point in Australia that it is now a classified as a noxious weed...
“Certain chemo types have been found to yield a bark oil containing 50-80% safrole”
(Safrole Faq)


Cinnamomum laubatii


Coastal northern Queensland

“The leaf oil compositions indicated two chemotypes, one with no aromatic compounds and the second containing 10-40% of safrole from an oil yield of 0.3-0.4%.”
Analysis by GC and GC/MS.
(J. Essent. Oil Res., 13, 332-335, 2001)


Cinnamomum oliveri


Northern NSW and southern Queensland
“The bark gave 0.4% oil, of which 25% was safrole.”
Identification by fractional distillation followed by b.p. , m.p. and density tests.
(Hargreaves, J.Chem.Soc. 1916, 109, 751)

“The leaf oil yield was 0.2-2.3%, the majority being >1%, of which 0.3-19% was safrole usually in inverse proportion to the camphor concentration.”
Analysis by GC and GC/MS.
(J. Essent. Oil Res., 13, 332-335, 2001)



Doryphora aromatica


Northern Queensland
“The bark gave 0.3% of oil, consisting chiefly of safrole at 95%.”
Identification by fractional distillation followed by b.p. , m.p. and density tests.
(Jones and Smith, Proc.Roy.Soc.Queensland, 1923, 35, 61-3 via P.E.O.R., 16, 179) - (This abstract was read from a scan of a book quoting the original report)

"The leaves contain no aromatic compounds (safrole)."
Analysis by GC and GC/MS.
(J. Essent. Oil. Res. 5, 581-586, 1993)




Doryphora sassafras


The south of Queensland down to the eastern districts of NSW from the blue mountains west of Sydney to as far west as the Jenolan caves.
“The leaves yielded from 0.1 to 0.85% oil, of one district had 60-65% safrole and the other district had 30% safrole.”
Identification by fractional distillation followed by b.p. , m.p. and density tests.
(J and Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. 1921, 55, 270)

“The fresh leaves had yields of 0.8 - 2% (14.71% safrole), 0.3% for the bark (14.88% safrole), and seed oil containing 13.04% safrole.”
Analysis by GC and GC/MS.
(J. Essent. Oil. Res. 5, 581-586, 1993)


Eremophila longifolia


Usually inland, continental Australia except extreme north
"Steam distillation of the leaves gave an aromatic oil in 5.8 % yield. Various levels of safrole content between collection groups where recorded via fractional distillation and gas chromatography at (i) 72%, (ii) 90% mean / 93% best, (iii) 37%, and (iv) 0%."
(Australian Journal of Chemistry. 1961;14:663-664)



Zieria (Rutaceae)


Along the east coast from Victoria to Northern Queensland
Essential Oil constituents of the genus Zieria:
Analysis by GC and GC/MS.
(Phytochemistry, vol. 26, no. 6, 1673-1686, 1987.)


“Essential oil yields from the genus Zieria showed wide inter- and infraspecific variation (Fig. 1). Yields ranged from 0.1% and less for Z. involucrata and Z. oeronicea to 8.3 and 9.1% for Z. smithii sens. strict. and Z. grantdata, respectively. Variation within the one form was as great as 0.5-8.3 % for Z. smithii sens. strict. Some correlations between oil yield and chemistry were evident.”




Subgroup 3.2: species yielding safrole-rich oils (% safrole fraction)

species (# samples analysed) mean range s.d.
Z. arborescens sens. strict. (2) 14.1 13.1-15.1 1.4
Z. arborescens “c” form (3)
80.8 56.8-94.1 20.8
Z. smithii sens. strict. (5) 71.3 65.8-81.2 6.1
Z. smithii “c” form (4) 56.6 52.5-59.1 2.8
Z. smithii “f” form (1)
41.4 n/a
n/a

Z. sp.aff. smithii (5)
92.3 90.0-95.5 2.3





Zieria (Rutaceae): a systematic and evolutionary study:
(Australian Systematic Botany, 15, 277-463, 2002)
“Steam-distillation of the foliage of subsp. Smithii resulted in high oil yields (0.5-8.3%, mean 3.1%), rich in either methyl eugenol, elemicin or safrole. The methyl eugenol rich samples occur throughout the species distribution in NSW; the elemicin rich samples occur in the coastal ranges from the Blue Mountains to south-eastern Queensland and the safrole rich samples are known from the coastal ranges in the south of NSW and from the south-eastern and central Queensland (South and Armstrong 1982, 1987).”



“Steam distillation of the foliage of subsp. Tomentose resulted in moderate volatile oil yields (mean 1.1%), safrole having a mean concentration of 9%.”


The Essential Oils of Zieria Smithii (Andrews) and its varias forms, Part II, 1950:
(reprinted from the Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., vol. LXXXIV, 196-201.)
Identification by fractional distillation followed by b.p. , m.p. and density tests.

“The yields of oils varied from 0.5% to 1.2%, calculated on the freshly cut leaves and terminal branchlets.”



In relation to an anonymous addition to the online article titled "the safrole faq" :
Anonymous:
"Just thought you might like to add some info onto your safrole FAQ sheet on your site. The Australian botanicals, southern sassafras and ziera smiithi have no safrole in their roots, bark, trunks or foliage. Southern sass has nothing worth mentioning whilst smiithi contains lots of methyl eugenol, which is where the confusion started I believe, the text 'poisionous plants of Australia' is fraught with errors and as much of the info in the current Safrole FAQ is lifted directly from this hence the errors. This will save readers much time I believe as I have wasted heaps of time collecting , seperating and steam distilling all the bits. The methyl eugenol's existence was confirmed through FTIR and NMR library matches so there is no doubt to the accuracy of this info. The only assumption I am making is that maybe safrole only seasonally appears in these species, as my samples were all collected in winter/spring."
>>
It would seem this person most likely collected a chemo-type containing little or no safrole... :)




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Further Resources:





Apart from getting copies of the journals' mentioned above there are a few more relevant sources of information that may be of use to you:


The Australian Virtual Herbarium


http://www.chah.gov.au/avh
A searchable database of recorded botanical plant collections'.


Ideal for getting approximate locations of where certain plants may be growing.
Though alot of the coordinates are very old and have low resolution of definity.
Not much work to download search results to a gps, but more involved in actually getting there to find nothing but a bare paddock or an airport...




Australian Tropical Rain Forest Plants (cdrom)

http://www.publish.c...18/pid/3400.htm

An interactive identification and information system for 2154 species of trees, shrubs and vines of northern Australian rain forests.


". . . represents the finest resource available for identifying rainforest plants in Australia and is a must for all those working in the area."
Chris Humphries (Plant Talk 34, Oct 2003)

"This program contains a wealth of information . . . I highly recommend this excellent program to identify and learn about woody plants and giant herbs in the Australian tropical rain forest."
Rudolf Schmid, UC (Taxon 52 May 2003)




Internet Forums

Information disseminates, finding's posted and general discussion.


Library's: Public, TAFE, University, Institute

Access journals online or via inter-library loans, as well as read books.




Herbarium, Nurseries and Gardens

Get yourself a fresh oxygen fix, while checkin' out actual specimens both alive and dried, or having your own collections/photos identified.



#3 Rev

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Posted 20 April 2007 - 04:05 PM

what no boronia?
no croweas?

#4 ausrom

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Posted 17 May 2007 - 12:14 PM

what no boronia?
no croweas?





well then... clearly room for a expansion would be called for justly, perhaps you would care to divulge some more details relating to such potentially idealistic species... ?

;)

#5 Torsten

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Posted 17 May 2007 - 11:19 PM

Boronia safrolifera - the name says it all :lol:
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#6 apothecary

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Posted 22 May 2007 - 03:11 AM

Just saw this thread.

Are there any papers for the Boronia? Couldn't find one...

Here is of course the well read thread for Crowea
Here with a loaf of bread beneath the
Bough,
A Flask of Wine, a Book of Verse -- and
Thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness --
And Wilderness is Paradise enow.

#7 Entheo

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Posted 29 May 2007 - 02:23 PM

Just saw this thread.

Are there any papers for the Boronia? Couldn't find one...


The leaves of the Safrole Boronia contain about 1.45% essential oil of which is composed of up to 75% safrole and the rest is composed of methyl eugenol and pinene (Penfold, 1924).

Penfold, A.R. 1924. The Essential Oil of Boronia safrolifera. J. Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. 58, 230-233.

#8 apothecary

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Posted 29 May 2007 - 03:36 PM

Thanks :)

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Here with a loaf of bread beneath the
Bough,
A Flask of Wine, a Book of Verse -- and
Thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness --
And Wilderness is Paradise enow.

#9 Entheo

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Posted 29 May 2007 - 04:07 PM

Australian Safrole Containing Plants

-=] ausaf - 2007 [=-


"following on from the direction of the safrole faq is research report information covering 9 known species - (8 native) growing in australia"

contents:


While we are talking about such plants
does anybody know the oil composition of the Blush-walnut, Beilschmiedia obtusifolia, which according to Flückiger (1887), has bark that affords about 2% of volatile oil and has a distinct 'sassafras' odour, implying it has safrole.

Flückiger, P. 1887. The Distribution Of Safrol. Am. J. Pharm. 59(8),
http://www.henriette.../08-safrol.html

and the River Red Gum, Eucalyptus camaldulensis was found to contain up to 0.3% safrole in its essential oil (Aboriginal Communities, 1993).
(now if only there are high chemotypes out there).

Aboriginal Communities of the Northern Territory. 1993. Traditional Aboriginal Medicines in the Northern Territory of Australia. Conservation Commission of the NT., Darwin.

#10 Pisgah

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Posted 19 June 2007 - 02:37 PM

Thanks :)

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That's a beautiful flower.

Good numbers as well!
Eight, eight, I forget what eight was for...

#11 XipeTotec

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Posted 21 June 2007 - 09:38 AM

there is a plant here (in tas) which I think has the name Tasmanian Sassafras. I know these common names can just refer to a physical resemblance.. but I seem to recall reading something interesting about this plant (the encyclopaedia of psychoactive drugs?) anyone know about this plant?
and when I die, and when im gone, there will be one child born, and this world will carry on.

#12 obtuse

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Posted 21 June 2007 - 12:23 PM

Hi Shroomy,

My understanding is that Tasmanian Sassafras is Atherosperma moschatum. I may be wrong.

I bought one recently and is known to be a tasmanian native. lovely plant. I have always been attracted to them while bushwalking as there is just something about their smell, especially when you scratch their bark, or crush a leaf. mmm yummy.

Anyone else have any info?

cheers, Obtuse

#13 dug1up

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Posted 24 November 2009 - 11:19 AM

In the interest of keeping this thread going,

Has anyone had much success with extraction from Camphor Laural. I am aware that there are different Chemo types. With the identification of the Killer Bird strain, or a small yellow leafed tree, has the distillate been worth it?

Same question for Boronias?

Cheers

#14 tarenna

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Posted 26 November 2009 - 10:01 PM

With the identification of the Killer Bird strain, or a small yellow leafed tree, has the distillate been worth it?


I have lots of experience with Cinnamomum camphora - but your statements above intrigue me.. Could you please explain what you mean by "Killer Bird strain" and "small yellow leafed tree"??

thanks

:)

#15 dug1up

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Posted 13 December 2009 - 12:56 AM

My reading and research has pointed out that there are different Chemo types and that the Killer Bird and small yellow leaf strains are of a higher Safrole content. I found this information here in the floristic key section -> http://www.camphorlaurel.com/

Please check it out. I have the ability to steam distill big batches, I just dont wish to waste my time on lower/ no yeilding trees.

So any help you can shine on this matter from experience would be truly appreciated. Fell free to PM with any useful info as well.

Edited by dug1up, 13 December 2009 - 12:59 AM.


#16 tarenna

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Posted 13 December 2009 - 08:31 PM

My reading and research has pointed out that there are different Chemo types and that the Killer Bird and small yellow leaf strains are of a higher Safrole content. I found this information here in the floristic key section -> http://www.camphorlaurel.com/

Please check it out. I have the ability to steam distill big batches, I just dont wish to waste my time on lower/ no yeilding trees.

So any help you can shine on this matter from experience would be truly appreciated. Fell free to PM with any useful info as well.


Sorry to rain on your parade Dug1up, but Joe Friend - author of the material you have quoted, is a looooose unit (and this is being kind to the guy). I suspected you had been reading his crap...

The majority of the material on his website is completely unsubstantiated drivel...

For instance.. check out this quote:

Resistance - why do people protect Camphor laurels?
DRUG-DEALER TRICKS

For many years it has been known in NSW Northern Rivers that persons growing marijuana prefer to keep "at the long arm of the law", in remote localities and/or with dispersed growing locations.
The hilly, sometimes steep country of parts of Byron Shire have been often 'preferred habitat' for growers and dealers, with ready access to an alternative, recreational locale and towns where any crop might be sold.

Tricks with Camphor Laurel Trees

1. Large 'Paddock Camphors' of the climbable kind have had rope-rigs set up high in the tallest, central branches, with buckets raised by pulley, containing pots of plants in enough water/hydroponic mix for a day or more.

2. Tunnel Tents in polythene/shadehouse covering, set under a broad spreading old Camphor laurel can effectively 'double hide' a young crop from spying helicopters, since the light wavelength emitted by marijuana is concealed.

3. 'Dirty Farms' - with many Camphors, Privets and weeds - are easy to go and hide in when the helicopters pass by; the more Camphors you have to go under, the less likely you get spotted from the air. Also, 'helicopter police' do not like crawling into/under Lantana/Camphor undergrowth, and it is well known that most Lantana grows better under/with Camphor laurel trees.

4. It is alleged that the light emitted wavelength arising from Camphor, when detected from the air, is very close to that of marijuana.

5. SAFROLE and CAMPHOR OILS; BASE MANUFACTURING COMPOUNDS! The more toxic types of Camphor laurel contain Safrole in the bark-cambium (in Australia). To be able to distil both Safrole and Camphor oils from all the bark represents a 'double whammy' for druggies who have some distillation/manufacturing skills. After all, only a simple kitchen area is needed and the 'recipe' is not complex; well-read drug enthusiasts can find the Chemistry formulas and instructions in certain key Chemistry textbooks.

Recreational drugs such as and including ECSTASY were first made from Camphor oil by young chemists in Germany in the late 1980s. As yet, it is not known how many young people may have died from ecstasy tablets made from Camphor laurel oil. Whilst other surrounding Shires are also involved, Trickiness' is considered most prevalent in Byron Shire, especially since Green Party Councillors of Byron Shire favour the 'recreational use' of certain drugs - as is Green Party Policy.




:bootyshake: :bootyshake: :bootyshake:
:BANGHEAD2: :BANGHEAD2: :BANGHEAD2:
:puke: :puke: :puke:
:uzi: :uzi: :uzi:
:wave-finger: :wave-finger: :wave-finger:


Utter crap in so many ways..

#17 dug1up

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Posted 14 December 2009 - 01:26 AM

That might be the case, but there is other info I've read somewhere, it alludes me at the moment, mentioning chemo types and high safrole concentrations and the seasons with regard to Cinnamomum camphora.

Have you had any experience extracting the essential oils from Cinnamomum camphora and its fractions and is so what was the outcome.....

I must admit that some of the interesting comments made in his article are entertaining none the less. However I'm more focused on the science and not the anecdotal.


Cheers
Still dig'n :-)

#18 dug1up

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Posted 12 February 2010 - 10:26 PM

Has anyone got anything new to add?

#19 Tripyamine

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Posted 09 March 2010 - 08:25 AM

shulgin.........

Edited by triptamine, 09 March 2010 - 11:43 PM.

It is difficult to say what is impossible, for the dream of yesterday is the hope of today and the reality of tomorrow.
Robert H. Goddard
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#20 echowarrior

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Posted 10 March 2010 - 04:19 PM

Has anyone got anything new to add?


hey mate seems we may have the same subject in common, you are aware of that the trees have two different chemotypes? how much research have you conducted? we may possibly be able to sure this, drop me a line Posted Image

#21 ferret

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Posted 27 March 2010 - 10:54 PM

so has anyone smelt a nice aromatic eremophila longifolia in eastern parts of aus?

i ask this because i have smelt a dozen or so populations between NW vic to north-central VIC and over into NSW, most lacked oil glands or smelt very mildly of something not that amazing..

Edited by ferret, 29 March 2010 - 01:48 PM.

would anyone tell me if I were getting stupider?

#22 dug1up

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Posted 24 April 2010 - 12:05 AM

What is the relevancy to Safrole with eremophila longifolia? Do you have any info?
Cheers

#23 mr me

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Posted 24 April 2010 - 09:51 AM

What is the relevancy to Safrole with eremophila longifolia? Do you have any info?


"Steam distillation of the leaves gave an aromatic oil in 5.8 % yield. Various levels of safrole content between collection groups where recorded via fractional distillation and gas chromatography at (i) 72%, (ii) 90% mean / 93% best, (iii) 37%, and (iv) 0%."
(Australian Journal of Chemistry. 1961;14:663-664)
You will probably find that actual yields will differ depending on time of year, soil, condition of plant, etc.

There are quite a number/variety of Eremophila species, many of which have been used in traditional medicine by aborigines. e longifolia has good antiseptic properties due to safrole of which it is found in good concentrations as apposed to other species of eremophila.

#24 naja naja

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Posted 24 April 2010 - 10:08 AM

Like 99% of people who read that, u have misunderstood it.

Of the 200 odd g, they fractionally distill 62g of it, of which they collect that 62g in several diff fractions, the highest fraction containing upto 90%, but the fraction is only a few milliletres of the 62g sample being tested. If u do the math, it works out that total saf content of the oil in highest situation would be around the 10-15% mark.
Absolutely, 100% hypothetical! Please visit my blog http://www.shaman-australis.com/forum/inde...;blogid=26&

#25 ferret

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Posted 24 April 2010 - 12:57 PM

yep i misinterpreted that abstract before i looked at the actual paper, i think it's the phrase "between collection groups" which sounds like it could be referring to collections at different populations.

a friend has spoken to an old bloke years ago who was doing this or very similar research, who said that populations that smelt good were few and far between. if i remember correctly..
would anyone tell me if I were getting stupider?