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Stenocereus (Ritterocereus) hystrix

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Stenocereus (Ritterocereus) hystrix Cuttings

This cactus contains simmilar alkaloids to Trichocereus peruvianus, Trichocereus tershekki and Lophophora williamsii cacti. Comparable in quantity of alkaloids to Lophophora williamsii. We have this harvested and prepared nicely without the core, spines or white flesh present. Traditional dosage is equal to 10-40g's of material as the alkaloid content may be variable.

From ethnogarden.

I am like wow - another spp of cacti and this one closer to home then the trich spp. :)

We have a simmilar looking cactus here- namely stenocerues (ritterocerues) griseus - here on the island - I am wondering what kind of alkaloids this spp might contain. The locals here eat it - cactus soup - very slimy. they say it is good for libido - if there is some truth to that then there might be an interesting alkaloid in it.

perhaps they probably do not eat enough of it to be psy-active....

of course still wondering how much truth there is to the Stenocerues hystrix.....

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I've eyed a S.griseus off before as well! :D

Wouldn't surprise me in the slightest if it did.

Come on brian - history awaits you!

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A lot of questions come up.

The most pertinent

1) Is the plant correctly identified? By whom was it identified?

2) Has it actually been bioassayed by humans? HOw many? Why did they do so originally?

3) Is the alkaloid content based on analysis or bioassay?

4) If there was an analysis, was it an isolative workup or a chromatographic assay? Where was this published? (Was is published?)

5) What country was it obtained from?

6) Who used this "traditional"ly? When and where? Was this published? If not, how was it discovered?

I really can't say much of anything meaningful without knowing the above.

I know of no reported use for the plant.

I am unaware of any reports of it containing alkaloids.

Lots of genera got lumped into Stenocereus including Lemaireocereus.

S. griseus and S. hystrix are both reported to contain saponins but not alkaloids.

I presently have no way to know what the story is for the material you ask about.

If answers to the above questions can be had, more might become known.

It would be novel, if not important, news for many reasons and in many areas of science including ethnobotany, entheobotany, taxonomy and phytochemistry. A first in many ways.

Based on my past experience with follow up on the myriad of claims for new active cactus species, I lean towards skepticism and suspect that this one may turn out like Wade Davis' claim of activity for Armatocereus laetus (ie Lemaireocereus laetus or Stenocereus laetus) and be based on someone else's purported claims of use rather than the person reporting it.

That is, if it is correctly identified.

If 10-40 grams of dried weight produces a good mescaline experience, my first guess would be that the material is misidentified. (Even taking into account the use of only outer layers in the prep)

There are at least several other equally plausible scenarios.

Whatever the story turns out to be, I would love to learn more too.

A simple summary of the reported chemistry for the "Lemaireocereus" species (almost all have multiple synonyms) is below (I hope this is not too long of a post?):

If for some reason anyone wants details for the references cited let me know.

Lemaireocereus aragonii (Weber) Britton & Rose

91.3% water by weight

Thought to contain an Amyrin mixture but never fully investigated due to insufficient material.

No ether soluble alkaloids.

Djerassi et al. 1955b [Wild collected; Costa Rica]

Lemaireocereus beneckei (Ehrenberg) Berger See as Stenocereus beneckei

Lemaireocereus chende (Gosselin) Britton & Rose See as Polaskia chende

Lemaireocereus chichipe (Gosselin) Britton & Rose See as Polaskia chichipe

Lemaireocereus deficiens (O. & Dietr.) Br. & R.

No saponins or terpenes. Hegnauer 1964

Traces of unidentified terpene(s). Djerassi 1957 cited unpublished observations by Djerassi & Mitscher

Lemaireocereus dumortieri Britton & Rose

Dumortierigenin (A triterpene lactone) 0.21% by dry wt.

No detectable alkaloid.

Djerassi et al. 1954b [Wild collected; Hildago, Mexico]

Lemaireocereus eruca Britton & Rose See as Stenocereus eruca

Lemaireocereus euphorbioides (Haw.) Werd. See as Neobuxbaumia euphorbioides

Lemaireocereus griseus (Haw.) Britton & Rose

“No alkaloids”

Erythrodiol (0.58% dry wt.)

Longispinogenin (0.82% dry wt.)

Oleanolic acid (Isolated via the acetate methyl ester as 2% by dry wt.)

Betulin (Isolated via the acetate methyl ester as 4% dry wt.)

Unidentified lactone 0.12% [Thought identical with material from L. hystrix; i.e “hystrix lactone”)

Djerassi et al. 1956a [Venezuela]

Lemaireocereus gummosus Britton & Rose See as Machaerocereus gummosus

Lemaireocereus hollianus (Web.) Britton & Rose

AKA “baboso”

86.5% water by weight. Djerassi et al. 1956a

No alkaloids present. Unger et al. 1980

Yielded only small amounts of a nonpolar substance that they believed was “probably similar” to the “aromatic” [?] alcohol they encountered with T. chiloensis and T. cuzcoensis. No triterpenes detected.

Djerassi et al. 1956a [Collected on Tehuacán-Puebla road 7 km from Zapotitlán, Mexico]

Lemaireocereus humilis Britton & Rose

No saponins or terpenes.

Hegnauer 1964

Traces of unidentified terpene(s).

Djerassi 1957 cited unpublished observations by Djerassi & Mitscher

Lemaireocereus hystrix (Haw.) Britton & Rose

79.7% water by weight

Unidentified neutral triterpene lactone (“hystrix lactone”; possibly isomeric with thurberogenin) [0.025% by dry wt]

Erythrodiol [0.067% by dry wt]

Oleanolic acid [(crude) 0.95% by dry wt ]

Longispinogenin [0.17% by dry wt]

Betulinic acid (0.025% by dry wt) [isolated via its methyl ester])

No detectable alkaloid.

Djerassi & Lippman 1954 [Collected in Mona district, Jamaica] Noted an almost identical qualitative composition as L. longispinus

Lemaireocereus laetus Britton & Rose

82.3% water by weight

[Concluded it was almost devoid of alkaloids or triterpenes. (Unable to resolve and separate. No ether soluble alkaloids. Much unidentified oily material (all neutral)]

Djerassi et al. 1955b [Wild collected; Peru].

This species needs further analysis. E. Wade Davis encountered it used on a local basis as a Trichocereus pachanoi substitute but apparently nothing further was reported. Analysis was purported to be ongoing (in Davis 1983) to be ongoing but the results of that study were curiously never mentioned in Davis 1997 or 1999. Correspondence with Davis in 2004 determined that no analysis was performed.

Lemaireocereus longispinus Britton & Rose

81.5% water by weight

Alkaloid devoid.

“Rich source” of triterpenoid glycosides.

Erythrodiol [0.33% by dry wt]

Oleanolic acid [(crude) 2.76% by dry wt]

Longispinogenin [0.4% by dry wt]

Djerassi et al. 1953c [Guatemala; cultivated specimen from Guatemala City]

Lemaireocereus marginatus (DC) Berg. See as Pachycereus marginatus

Lemaireocereus mixtecensis (Purpus) Britton & Rose See as Polaskia chichipe

Lemaireocereus montanus Britton & Rose

Oleanolic acid

Queretaroic acid

b-Sitosterol

Djerassi 1957 cited unpublished observations by Djerassi & Kan

Lemaireocereus pruinosus (Otto) Britton & Rose

AKA “Pitayo”

89% water by weight. Djerassi et al. 1955b

Reported to show no detectable alkaloids in the screenings of Fong et al. 1972

Unidentified alkaloids detected by Brown et al. 1968

Oleanolic acid (an acidic triterpene; single component: 0.2% fresh wt/ 1.8% dry)

Djerassi et al. 1955b [Cultivated: California]

First analyzed by L.H. Liu (unpublished observation from Djerassi’s lab) according to Djerassi & Lippman 1954.

Lemaireocereus queretaroensis (Weber) Safford

Queretaroic acid (A dihydroxy triterpene acid) No isolation details included.

Djerassi et al. 1955a. Also in Djerassi et al. 1956b.

Oleanolic acid Djerassi et al. 1956b

Lemaireocereus quevedonis G.Ortega

87.2% water by weight

“hystrix lactone” (~0.4% yield dry wt)

Longispinogenin (1.42% yield dry wt.)

Oleanolic acid

Betanulinic acid

Djerassi et al. 1956a [Collected near Aculpulco, Mexico]

Lemaireocereus stellatus (Pfeiffer) Br. & R. See as Stenocereus stellatus

Lemaireocereus thurberi (Engelmann) Britton & Rose

AKA “Pitahaya dulce” or “Organ pipe”

84.9% water by weight Djerassi et al. 1953a [Kirscher 1972 reported 85%; Kirscher 1982 reported 77-80%]

No alkaloids- Based on negative Mayer test Djerassi et al. 1953a [Collected: Sonora, Mexico]

tlc examination showed the absence of alkaloids and the strong presence of triterpene glycosides: Kircher 1982

Oleanolic acid (an acidic sapogenin) 1.8% dry wt. Djerassi et al. 1953a (Also reported in Kirscher 1972)

Thurberogenin (a neutral triterpenoid lactone: first reported occurrence) 0.46% dry wt. Djerassi et al. 1953a. (This paper was the first report of triterpenes in cacti) (It was also reported in Kirscher 1972 & in Jolad & Steelink 1969)

Queretaroic acid (No details) Gibson & Horak 1978 cited H.W. Kircher (unpublished data); (Also reported in Kirscher 1972)

Thurberin (a pentacyclic triterpene; a lupenediol) Jolad & Steelink 1969 See comment under Calenduladiol below

Betulin Jolad & Steelink 1969

Calenduladiol (A triterpene diol; D-20,30-lupen-3b,12b -diol) Shown to be identical with Thurberin.

Kasprzyk et al. 1970 [Previously isolated from the Composite Calendula officinales (Marigold) by Kasprzyk & Pyrek 1968]

Kircher 1980 isolated the following (See also in Kircher 1982):

Lupeol

Betulin

Betulinic aldehyde

Methyl betulinate

Calenduladiol

Longispinogenin

Lupenetriol (Lup-20(29)-en-3b,16b,28-triol)

Oleanolic aldehyde

Methyl oleanolate

(3b,6aSterol diols were isolated as 2.6% of dry wt. Kircher 1980)

The following 5 sterol diols were isolated and identified in Kircher & Bird 1982. (No concentrations included)

Cyclostenol (14a-Methyl-9,19-cyclo-5a-cholestan-3b,6a-diol)

Stenocereol (14a-Methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b,6a-diol)

Macdougallin (14a-Methyl-5a-cholest-8-en-3b,6a-diol)

Thurberol (5a-Cholesta-8,14-dien-3b,6a-diol)

Peniocerol (5a-Cholest-8(9)-en-3b,6a-diol)

Lipids determined to compose 10-17% of the dry weight (comprised of neutral Oleanene and Lupene mon-, di- and triols, 0.07% Phytosterols [Cholesterol, Campesterol & Sitosterol] and a large proportion of Dihydroxysterols.) Kircher & Bird 1982 cited Bird 1974.

Lipid content determined to be 11% by dry weight: Kircher 1982

Lemaireocereus treleasei Br. & R. See as Stenocereus treleasei

Lemaireocereus weberi (Coulter) Br. & R. See as Pachycereus weberi

It seems like an odd approach to publish an advertisement claiming what this claims if the seller wants it to remain untargeted for any duration. Its so strange how many people seem to lack basic survival skills or perhaps just common sense when it comes to selling plants containing substances regarded as illegal in some countries they plan to ship to. We've heard of a couple of instances where Customs had questions about dried plant material coming into the country and went to the vendor's website for information.

Its a tricky business of course. How DOES one advertise a complete unknown without tipping their hand?

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Thank you for your elaborate reply Trout.

Here is the only referrence that I could find so far, regarding it having alkaloids. Insufficient information.

http://www.herbal-shaman.com/database/lemahyst.htm

Ethnogarden does have a garden in the Dominican Republic - And other sources do claim that it grows on Puerto Rico - so we know at least that.

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I asked Ethnogarden, and this was the response:

It has indeed been analyzed via HPLC, GC/MS and TLC.

All reports are conclusive and active in the desired alkaloids.

There is still a slight possibility it may be hybridized but we have identified it through botanical channels and it has proven to be accurate with all those we have consulted.

This is one of the only Stenocereus to contained the alkaloids present.

----

he he - so now I should ask him " how about an analisis on Stenocerues Griseus ?"

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I cannot comment as to the taxonomy of this cactus product, however I can comment as one who has been waiting for a cutting of this plant for a while.

This plant has changed names at least twice since it appeared on the site. (Same picture of product, live and dried flesh).

1. Trichocereus cuzcoensis

2. Trichocereus peruvianus hybrid

3. Stenocereus whateverthef@ck....

So, I am encouraged by the report of alkaloidal assay of the product, but my skepticism grows. I'm wondering in what species (or genus!) this highly touted cactus will eventually wind up settling.

I must say, I'm glad Trout has arrived because this is one of those sticky situations wherein botany must correct the marketplace.

What are your thoughts?

[ 14. April 2005, 08:54: Message edited by: Pisgah ]

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There's a photo of a potted cutting of this 'Stenocereus hybrid' on the catalog page of MJB-Botanicals website. Though the plant has trimmed spines, maybe there's an adventurous taxonomist among us who would venture a guess as to the proper ID. I'm tempted to order a cutting from Ethnogarden, if only for curiosity's sake.

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hey gusto can you post a link plz

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I'm quite computer illiterate, but even if the link doesn't work, maybe you'll get the gist of it.

mjb's catalog

The somewhat battered 'Stenocereus hybrid' cutting is towards the bottom of the page.

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Ethnogarden gets their analysis done by MJB. While Mark at MJB is certainly trustworthy, and Jason at Ethnogarden runs a very ethical and good business, neither are all that good with Botany and both have been known to cut MINOR corners when there was a conflict of ID over business.

Bottom line is that if Mark says his analysis indicates that this is an active one then it most likely is. This does not neccessarily mean that if you get some S.hystrix seeds and grow them out that you will get much of an effect

Just so there is no misunderstanding, I like both Mark and Jason and I purchase stuff off their respective businesses regularly. But as far as ID goes, we all try our best, but we all have different levels of method and confirmation .... caveat emptor

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Some interesting pics here:

http://www.columnar-cacti.org/stenocereus/

I notice that Pachycereus marginatus is in the Stenocereus group now too. I can confirm that this one is active too, although I never managed to grow a full dose because they always rot to the base over winter

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quote:

I notice that Pachycereus marginatus is in the Stenocereus group now too. I can confirm that this one is active too, although I never managed to grow a full dose because they always rot to the base over winter.


Would you mind elaborating on this please Torsten.

What's considered an active dose?

It's quite common in this part of the world.

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I had a foot of 2.5" material. It was active, but not enough. At such low dose it is difficult to tell what exactly the full effects are. It was good enough to try and propagate lots though, which just wasn't possible up here.

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http://www.ethnobotany-australia.net/commu...opic.php?t=2200

This thread examined other clumnar cacti before

Mescalito also ate S marginatus and reported some effect. minor however.

If anyone else has eaten a strange cactus please feel free to add to that old thread

Keep in mind that a traditional dose of the andean cactus Pishicol - Armatocereus laetus is 6 foot!

[ 20. April 2005, 17:46: Message edited by: Rev ]

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that pic in that link gusto provided doesnt look like a stenocereus to me, though i was just comparing it to other members in the family.

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To speculate, there is known to be more than one path to mesc in nature, however what of the chance that this stenocereus is a hybrid?

This possibility might imply some other possibilities

1 The alkaloid profile is the result of the combined genetic materials, perhaps even being a property that is found in neither of the parents. There are many instances of this in many families, examples in the Solanaceae abound.

2 The alkaloid profile is the result of dominant genes found in a pollen donor. This might be interesting, if mesc production can be identified with dominant genes then this is of important relevance to breeding efforts.

So if it is active we know that it is unusual for its attributed species. I hear that there are some Trichocereus entheogens that have less floral hair, has this material been genetically tested for its taxonomic affinity?

[ 21. April 2005, 00:43: Message edited by: Archaea ]

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Hmmm, the ribs are quite thin in that pic, but the spines are gray from the tip which is like Steno.

Another plant that's always intrigued me is Lophocereus schotti monstrous.

It's EXTREMELY slow growing and it even smells bitter.

Could never bring myself to try it though, it's too precious and beautiful.

[ 25. April 2005, 13:42: Message edited by: strangebrew ]

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schotti is a common cactus in collections and cactus shops, so if this turns out ot be active there would be quite a bit of ready material out there. Might be worth a sacrifice....

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Wow, I know collector's often have the mons. Took me a while to find mine.

They'd be pricey though wouldn't they, considering how slow they are?

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http://www.lithops.net/cacta5.htm

Sells them for 17.50USD.

Perhaps one of our US friends could order one to test?

Does anyone own one of these cool looking cacti? I'd love a cutting!

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Neat aren't they! I've only got the thinner kind.

I'll keep you in mind Apoth if you don't mind waiting a few years.

They have to be rooted in constant high temps too, low 20's or above from memory.

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quote:

Perhaps one of our US friends could order one to test?

I'm on the case!

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wow , the Lophocereus schotti monstrous is super cool in that link apothecary posted.

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Ah well, twas but a long shot.

It is bitter but not as bitter as it smells.

If active at all, I think quite a bit would be needed.

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