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Wile E. Peyote

Lophophora Research List

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Figured I would try to get a list going for Lophophora research, inspired by The Cactus Inspiration Institute and Gimli’s Complete List of Trichocereus Clones. I’ve started it off by lifting and giving the CCI research list a clean up, lifting Snu's reference list and organising publications by year, If you know of any Lophophora research that is not included in the list, leave a comment or send me a message and I will add it to the list. At some point soon I’ll go through the reference list of Ratsch’s encyclopaedia and whatever I find on Erowid and forums. If you beat me to it feel free…  

Dana M. Price and Martin Terry. N.D. Problem or Opportunity? Impact of the Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) Trade on Endangered Star Cactus (Astrophytum asterias). Webpage. Cactus Conservation Institute.
Muller-Ebeling, Claudia, and Christian Ratschs. n. d. Kreistrituale mit Peyote und MDMA. In MDMA: Die psychoactive Substanz fur Therapie, Ritual und Rekreation, rev. ed., ed. Constanze Weigle and Ronald Rippchen. Der Grune Zweig 103. Lohrbach: Werner Pieper’s MedienXperimente.    


Ellis, Havelock. 1872. A note on the phenomenon of mescal intoxication. The Lancet 75(1):1540-42.


Hennings, Paul. 1888. Eine giftige Kaktee, Arhalonium lewinii n. spp.. Gartenflora 37:410-12.
Lewin, Louis. 1888. Ueber Anhalonium lewinii. Archiv fur experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 24:401-11.


Lumholz, Carl. 1902. Unknown Mexico. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.


Shonle, R. 1925. Peyote, the giver of visions. American Anthropologist 27:53-75

Rouhier, Alexandre. 1927. Le Peyotl (Echinocactus williamsii). Paris: Gaston Doin et Cie.

Zabel, Rudolf. 1928. Das heimliche Volk. Berlin: Deutsche Buch-Gemeinschaft.


Wagner, Gunter. 1932. Entwicklung und Verbreitung des Peyote-Kultes. Baessler-Archiv 15:59-144.

Petrullo, V. 1934. The diabolic root: A study of peyotism, the new Indian religion, among the Delawares. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Lasswell, H. 1935. Collective autism as a consequence of cultural contact: Notes on religious training and the peyote cult at Taos. Zeitschrift fur Sozialforschung 4:232-47. Paris.

Schultes, R. E. 1936. Peyote and plants used in the peyote ceremony. Botanical Museum Leaflets Harvard Univ. 4:129- 152.

Hijaro, L. 1937. Viajes por America, 3 parte, El peyote al traves de los siglos. Revista Mexicana de Ingeneria y Arquitectura 15:543-63, 665-92Bravo, H. 1937. Las Cactaceas de Mexico. Universidad Nacional de Mexico.
Schultes, R.E. 1937. “Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) and plants confused with it.” Harv. Bot. Mus. Leaf. 5(5):61-88.
Schultes, R. E. 1937. Peyote and the American Indian. Nature Magazine 30: 155–157.

Schultes, R. E. 1938. The appeal of peyote (Lophophora Williamsii)as a medicine. American Anthropologist 40:698–715.
Schultes, R. E. 1938. Peyote, an American Indian heritage from Mexico. El. Mex. Ant. 4:199–208.
Goggin, John M. 1938. A note on Cheyenne peyote. New Mexico Anthropologist 3(2):26-32.
La Barre, Weston. 1938. The peyote cult. Schocken Books.

Opler, Morris E. 1938. The use of peyote by the Carrizo and Lipan Apache tribes. American Anthropologist, n. s., 40:271-85.

Carlson G. and Jones, V. 1939. Some notes on uses of plants by the Comanche Indians. Papers of the Michigani Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 25:517-42.

Opler, M. 1939. A description of a Tonkawa peyote meeting held in 1902. American Anthropologist 41:433-39.
Stewart, O. 1939. Washo-Northern Paiute peyotism: A study in acculturation. Proceedings of the 6th Pacific Science Congress 4:65-68
La Barre, W. 1939. Note on Richard Schultes' "The Appeal of Peyote." American Anthropologist 41:340-42
Gusinde, Martin. 1939. Der Peyote-Kult: Enstehung und Verbeitung. Vienna-Modling: Missionsdruckerei.


Schultes, R. E. 1940. The aboriginal therapeutic uses of Lophophora Williamsii. Cactus and Succulent Journal 12:177–181.
Hayes, A. 1940. Peyote cult on the Goshiute reservation at Deep Creek, Utah. New Mexico Anthropologist 4:34-36.
Opler, M. 1940. The character and history of the southern Ute peyote rite. American Anthropologist 57:463-78.
Hayes, Alden. 1940. Peyote cult on the Goshiute Reservation at Deep Creek, Utah. New Mexico Anthropologist 4(2): 34-36.
Opler, Marvin Kaufman. 1940. The character and history of the southern Ute peyote rite. American Anthropologist, n. s., 42:463-78.

Baarber, B. 1941. A socio-cultural interpretation of the peyote cult. American Anthropologist 43:673-75.
Siskin, E. 1941. The impact of the peyote cult upon shamanism among the Washo Indians. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University (Department of Anthropology), New Haven.
Stewart, O. 1941. The Southern Ute peyote cult. American Anthropologist 43:303-308.

Malouf, C. 1942. Gosiute peyotism. American Anthropologist 44:93-103.
Bromberg W. 1942. Storm over peyote. Nature Magazine 35:410-12.
Opler, M. 1942.  Fact and fancy in Ute peyotism. American Anthropologist 44:151-59.
Leonard, Irving A. 1942. Peyote and the Mexican Inquisition, 1620. American Anthropologist, N.s., 44:324-26.

Stewart, O. 1944. Washo-Northern Paiute peyotism: A study in acculturation. University of California Publications in Ameri- can Archaeology and Ethnology 40, No. 3:63-141.

La Barre, W. 1947. Primitive psychotherapy in native American cultures: Peyotism and confession. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 24:294-309.

Stewart, O. 1948. Ute peyotism. University of Colorado Studies, Series in Anthropology 1:1-42

McAllester, D. 1949. Peyote music. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology No. 13.

Brant, C. 1950. Peyotism among the Kiowa-Apache and neighboring tribes. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 6:212-22.

La Barre, W. McAllester, D. Slotkin, J. Stewart, O. and Tax, S. 1951. Statement on peyote. Science 114:582-83.
Slotkin, J. 1951. Early eighteenth century documents on peyotism north of the Rio Grande. American Anthropologist 53:420-27

Splinder, G. 1952. Personality and peyotism in Menomini Indian acculturation. Psychiatry 15:151-59.
Gonzalo, A. 1952. La magica del peyotl. Universidad de Mexico, Organo Oficial de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico 6, No. 68:2-4
Slotkin, J. 1952. Menomini Peyotism. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.
Beaver, W. 1952. Peyote and the Hopi. American Anthropologist 54:120.

Nettl, B. 1953. Observations on meaningless peyote song texts. Journal of American Folklore 66:161-64.

Slotkin, J. 1955. Peyotism, 1521-1891. American Anthropologist 57:202-30.

Slotkin, J. 1956. The peyote way. Tomorrow, Quarterly Review of Psychical Research 4:64-70.
Arth, M. 1956. A functional view of peyotism in Omaha culture. The Plains Anthropologist 7:25-29.
Stewart, O. 1956. Peyote and Colorado's Inquisition law. Colorado Quarterly 5:79- 90
Slotkin, J. S. 1956. The peyote religion: A study in Indian-White relations. Glencoe, III.: The Free Press.

Howard, J. 1957. The mescal bean cult of the central and southern Plains: An ancestor of the peyote cult? American Anthropologist 59:75-87.
Aberle, D. and Stewart, O. 1957. Navaho and Ute peyotism: A chronological and distributional study. University of Colorado Studies, Series in Anthropology, No. 6. 129
La Barre, W. 1957. Mescalism and peyotism. American Anthropologist 59:70
Denman, L. (Ed.) 1957. The peyote ritual. San Francisco: Grabhorn Press.
Dittman, A. and Moore, H. 1957. Disturbance in dreams as related to peyotism among the Navaho. American Anthropologist 59:642-49.
Merriam, A. and D’Azevedo, W. 1957. Washo peyote songs. American Anthropologist 59:615-41

Kloesel, L.G. 1958. “Some notes on peyote.” American J. Pharmacy 130:307-316.
Rhodes, W. 1958. A study of musical diffusion based on the wandering of the opening peyote song. Journal of the International Folk Music Council 10:42-49.

Barber, C. 1959. Peyote and the definition of narcotic. American Anthropologist 61:641-46.
Vonnegut, Kurt. 1959. The sirens of Titan. New York: Dell.

La Barre, W. (1960) Twenty Years of Peyote Studies. Current Anthropology, 1(1): 45-60
McLeary, James A., Paul S. Sypherd, and David L. Walkington. 1960. Antiobiotic activity of an extract of peyote [Lophophora wiliamsii (Lemaire) Coulter]. Economic Botany 14:247-49.

Dustin, C. Burton. 1962. Peyotism and New Mexico. Albuquerque, N.M.: self-published.

Wasson, R.G. 1963. “Notes on the present status of ololiuhqui and the other hallucinogens of Mexico.” Harv. Bot. Mus. Leaf. 20(6):161-193.
Mellen, Chase, III. 1963. Reflections of a peyote eater. The Harvard Review 1(4): 63-67.


James, Joyce. 1964. Shouted from the housetops: A peyote awakening. Psychedelic Review 1(4): 459-83.

Furst, Peter T. 1965. West Mexican tomb art as evidence for shamanism in pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica. Antropologica 15:29-80.
Gabler, Hartwig. 1965. Aus dem Heilschatz der Natur, Stuttgart: Paracelsus Verlag.

McLaughlin, J.L. & Paul, A.G. 1966. “The cactus alkaloids. I. Identification of N-methylated tyramine derivatives in Lophophora williamsii.” Lloydia 29(4):315-327.
Anderson, Edward F. 1966. Peyote and its derivatives as medicine. Jarbuch fur Transkulturelle Medizin und Psychoterapie 6 (1995): 369-79.
Anderson, Edward F. 1966. Peyote. The divine cactus. 2nd ed. Tucson: The University of Airzona Press.
1966 Roseman, Bernard. 1966. The peyote story: The Indian mind drug. Hollywood, Calif.: Wilshire Book Co.

Farnsworth, N.R. 1968. “Hallucinogenic plants.” Science 162:1086-1092.
Kapadia, G.J. et al. 1968. “Peyote alkaloids II. Anhalotine, lophotine, and peyotine, the quaternary alkaloids of Lophophora williamsii.” J. Pharm. Sci. 57(2):254-262.
Momaday, N. Scott. 1968. House made of dawn. New York: Harper & Row.
Schaefer, Georg, and Nan Cuz. 1968. Im Reiche des Mescal. Essen: Synthesis Verlag.

Schultes, R.E. 1969. “Hallucinogens of plant origin.” Science 163:245-254.
Todd, J.S. 1969. “Thin-layer chromatography analysis of Mexican populations of Lophophora (Cactaceae).” Lloydia 32(3):395-398.
Furst, Peter T. 1969. A possible symbolic manifestation of funerary endo-cannibalism in Mexico. In Verhandlungen des XXXVIII. Internationalen Amerikanistenkongresses, 2:385-99. Munich: Klaus Renner.
Momaday, N. Scott. 1969. The way to Rainy Mountains. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Kapadia, G.J. & Fayez, M.B.E. 1970. “Peyote constituents: chemistry, biogenesis, and biological effects.” J. Pharm. Sci. 59(12):1699-1727

Ammon, Gunter, and Paul G. R. Patterson. 1971. Peyote: Zwei verschiedeme Ich-Erfahrungen. In Beweubsteinserweiternde Dorgen aus psychoanalytischer Sicht, special issue, Dynamische Psychiatrie. 47-71. Berlin.


Benzi, Marino. 1972. Les derniers adorateurs du peyotl. Paris: Gallimard.
Furst, Peter T. and Salomon Nahmad. 1972. Mitos y arte huicholes. Mexico City: SepSetentas.
Marriott, Alice and Carol K. Rachlin. 1972. Peyote. New York and Scarbarough. Ontario: Mentor Book.
Nahmad Sittri, Salomon, Otto Klineberg, Peter T. Furst, and Barbara G. Myerhoff. 1972. El peyote y los huicholes. Mexico City: SepSetentas.

Shulgin, A.T. 1973. “Mescaline: the chemistry and pharmacology of its analogs.” Lloydia 36:46-58.
Bruhn, Jan G., and Catarina Bruhn. 1973. Alkaloids and ethnobotany of Mexican peyote cacti and related species. Economic Botany. 27:241-51.
Myerhoff, Barbara G. 1973. Organization and ecstacy: Peyote and the Huichol case. Unpublished manuscript.


Bruhn, J.G. & Holmstedt, B. 1974. “Early peyote research – an interdisciplinary study.” Ec. Bot. 28:353-390.
Albaugh, B. J., and P. O. Anderson. 1974. Peyote in the treatment of alcoholism among American Indians. American Journal of Psychiatry 131:1247-50.
Bahti, Tom. 1974. Southwestern Indian ceremonials. Las Vegas: KC Publications.
Bruhn, Jan G., and Bo Holmstedt. 1974. Early peyote research: An interdisciplinary study. Economic Botany 28:353-90.
Myerhoff, Barbara G. 1974. Peyote hunt: The sacred journey of the Huichol Indiands. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University.


Artaud, Antonin. 1975. Die Tarahumaras. Hamburg: Rogner and Bernhard.
Benitez, Fernando, 1975. In the magic land of peyote. Austin and London: University of Texas Press.
Bruhn, Jan G., and Stig Agurell. 1975. O-methylpellotine, a new peyote alkaloid from Lophophora diffusa. Phytochemistry. 14:1442-43.
Myerhoff, Barbara G. 1975. Peyote and Huichol worldview: The structure of a mystic vision. In Cannabis and culture, ed. Vera Rubin, 417-38. The Hague and Paris: Mouton.
Stacy, John E. 1975. Studies in the genus Oncidium. Botanical Museum Leaflets 24(7):133-67.

Furst, P.T. 1976. Hallucinogens and Culture. Chandler & Sharp Inc., Cal.
1976 Myerhoff, B. (1976). The Huichol and the Quest for Paradise, Parabola 1, pp. 22–29
Morgan, George Robert. 1976. Man, plant, and religion: Peyote trade on the Mustang Plains of Texas. Dissertation, University of Colorado (microfilm no. 76-23, 637).
Pascarosa, Paul, and Sanford Futterman. 1976. Ethnopsychedelic therapy for alcoholics: Observations in the peyote ritual of the Native American Church. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 8(3):215-221.

Furst, Peter T., and M. Anguiano. 1977. “To fly as bird”: Myth and ritual agents of encultration among Huichol Indians of Mexico. In Enculturation in Latin America: An anthology, ed. Johannes Wilbert, 95-181. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications.

Myerhoff, B. 1978. Return to Wirikuta: Ritual Reversal and Symbolic Continuity in the Peyote Hunt of the Huichol Indians, in The Reversible World: Symbolic Inversion in Art and Society, Barbara A. Babcock ed. Ithaca, N. Y. pp. 225–239
Berrin, Kathleen, ed. 1978. Art of the Huichol Indians. San Francisco: The Fine Arts Museum.
Bruhn, Jan G., J.-E. Lindgren, and Bo Holmstedt. 1978. Peyote alkaloids: Identification in a prehistoric specimen of Lophophora from Coahuila, Mexico. Science 199:1437-38.
Tedlock, Dennis, and Barbara Tedlock, eds. 1978. Uber den Rand des tiefen Canyon. Cologne: Diedrichs.

Diaz, J.L. 1979. “Ethnopharmacology and taxonomy of Mexican psychodysleptic plants.” J. Psychedelic Drugs 11(1-2):71-101.
Bye, R.A. (Jr.) 1979. “Hallucinogenic plants of the Tarahumara.” J. Ethnopharm. 1:23-48.
Lame Deer and Richard Erdoes. 1979. Tacha Ushte – Medizinman der Sioux. Munich: List.

Schultes, R.E. & Hofmann, A. 1980. The Botany and Chemistry of Hallucinogens. Revised ed. Charles C. Thomas, Illinois.
Anderson, Edward F. 1980. Peyote: The divine cactus. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.
1980 Deimel, Claus. 1980. Tarahumara. Frankfurt/M.:Syndikat.
Gerber, Peter. 1980. Die Peyote-Religion. Zurich: Volkerundemuseum der Universitat.
Myerhoff, Barbara G. 1980. Der Peyote Kult. Munich: Trikont.


Furst, Peter T. 1981. Peyote und die Huichol-Indianer in Meixko. In Rausch und Realitat, ed. G. Volger, 2:468-75. Cologne: Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum fur Volkerkunde.
La Barre, Weston. 1981. Peyotegebrauch bei nordamerikanischen Indianern. In Rausch und Realitat, ed. G. Volger, 2:476-78. Cologne: Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum fur Volkerkunde.
Wilson, Richard. 1981. Der Sonnentanz und andere Storys. Hamburg: Xenos.

Benson, L. 1982. The Cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford Univ. Press, Cal
Aberle, David F. 1982. The peyote religion among the Navaho. 2nd ed. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
Ginsberg, Allen. 1982. Notizbucher 1952-1962. Reinbek, Germany: Rowholt.
Zingg, Robert M. 1982. Los huicholes. 2 vols. Mexico City: INI.

Siniscalco, G.G. 1983. “La mescalina in Lophophora Coult. Ed in altre Cactacee.” Bolletino Chimico Farmaceutico 122:499-504.
Morgan, George Robert. 1983. Hispano-Indian trade of an Indian ceremonial plant, peyote (Lophophora williamsii), on the Mustang Plains of Texas. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 9:319-21.
Morgan, George Robert. 1983. The biogeography of peyote in South Texas. Botanical Museum Leaflets 29(2):73-86.

Stewart, O. C, and D. F. Aberle. 1984. Peyotism in the West. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah vii-viii.
Heffter, Arthur. 1984. Uber Pellote: Ein Beitrag zur pharmakologischen Kenntnis der Kakteen. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv fur experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 34:65.
Stweart, Omer C., and David F. Aberle. 1984. Peyotism in the West. University of Utah Anthropological Papers no. 108. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.


Bollhardt, Thomas Benno. 1985. Nearika: Visionen der Huichol. In Umgarnte Mythen, 9-75. Freiburg: Volkerkundemuseum Freiburg. (Exhibition catalogue).
d'Azevedo, Warren L. 1985. Straight with the medicine: Narratives of Washo followers of the Tipi Way. Berkeley, Calif.: Heyday Books.
Deimel, Claus. 1985. Die Peyoteheilung der Tarahumara. Schreibheft 25:155-63.
Wiedman, Dennis. 1985. Staff, fan, rattle and drum: Spiritual and artistic expressions of Oklahoma peyotists. American Indian Art Magazine 10(3):38-45.


Deimel, Claus. 1986. Der heilsame Rausch. In “Mexiko,” special issue, Geo Special, no. 2:86-87.
Gerard, John. 1986. Glanz and Untergang des Alten Mexiko. Mainz: Phillip von Zabern. (Exhibition catalogue).


Wiard, Leon A. 1987. An introduction to the orchids of Mexico. Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Comstock/Cornell University Press.

Haan, Perm Lelia de. 1988. Bei Schamanen. Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein.
Hell, Christina. 1988. Hirsch, Mais, Peyote in der Konzeption der Huichol. Hohenschaftlarn, Germany: Kluas Renner Verlag.
Mount, Guy, ed. 1988. The peyote book: A study of native medicine. Arcata, Calif: Sweetlights Books.
Straatman, Silke. 1988. Die Wollbilder der Huichol-Indianer. Vol. 6 of Marburger Studien zue Volkerkunde. Marburg/Lahn: Marburger Studien zur Volkerkunde.
Wiedman, Dennis, and Candace Greene. 1988. Early Kiowa peyote ritual and symbolism: The 1891 drawing books of Silverhorn (Haungooah). American Indian Art Magazine 13(4):32-41.

Lundstrom, J. 1989. “B-Phenethylamines and ephedrines of plant origin.” in Brossi, A. ed. The Alkaloids Vol. 35. Academic Press, NY.
Brito, Silvester J. 1989. The way of a peyote roadman. New York: Peter Lang.
Evans, A. Don. 1989. The purpose and meaning of peyote as a sacred material for Native Americans. In The concept of sacred materials and their place in the world, ed. George P. Horse Capture, 20-35. Cody, Wyo.: The Plans Indian Museum.
Kan, Michael, Clement Meighan, and H. B. Nicholson. 1989. Sculpture of ancient West Mexico. Los Angeles: Country Museum of Art.
Lumholz, Carl. 1989. A notion of shamans: The Huichols of the Sierra Madre. The Shamanic Library, no. 1. Oakland, Calif.: Bruce I. Finson. (Orig. pub. 1900 as Symbolism of the Huichole Indians.)
Schaefer, Stacy. 1989. The loom and time in the Huichol world. Journal of Latin American Lore 15(2):179-94.

Bullis, Ronald K. 1990. Swallowing the scroll: Legal implications of the recent Supreme Court peyote cases. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 22(3): 325-32.
Casillas Romo, Armando. 1990. Nosologia mitica de un pueblo: Medicina tradicional huichola. Guadalajara: Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara.
Steinmetz, Paul B., Jr. 1990. Pipe, Bible, and peyote among the Oglala Lakota. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press.

Rätsch, C. 1992. The Dictionary of Sacred and Magical Plants. Unity Press, NSW.
Schultes, R.E. & Hofmann, A. 1992. Plants of the Gods – Their sacred, healing and hallucinogenic powers. Healing Arts Press, Vermont.
Stafford, P. 1992. Psychedelics Encyclopedia. 3rd ed. Ronin Publishing, Cal.
Blanco Larbra, Victor. 1992. Wirikuta: La tierra sagrada de los huicholes. Mexico City: Daimon.
Camino, Alejandro. 1992. El peyote: Derecho historico de los pueblos indios. Takiwasi 1(1): 99-109.
Rysy, Wolfgang. 1992. Orchideen: Tropische Orchideen fur Zimmer und Gewachschaus. 4th Ed. Munich: BLV.
Valadez, Mariano, and Susana Valadez. 1992. Huichol Indian sacred rituals. Oakland, Calif.: Dharma Enterprises.

Mount, G. 1993. The Peyote Book – A Study of Native Medicine. 3rd ed. Sweetlight Books, Cal.
Ott, J. 1993. Pharmacotheon – Entheogenic Drugs, their plant sources and history. Natural Products Co., Wa.
Brave Bird, Mary. 1993. Ohitika woman. New York: Grove Press.
Brenneisem, Rudolf, and Hans-Jorg Helmlin. 1993. Lophophora. In Hagers Handbuch der pharmazeutischen Praxis, 5th ed., 5:707-12. Berlin: Springer.
Fikes, Jay Courtney. 1993. Carlos Castenada, academic opportunism and the psychedelic sixties. Victoria, B.C.: Millennia Press.
Schaefer, Stacy. 1993. Huichol Indian costumes: A transforming tradition. Latin America Art Spring 93:70-73.
Schaefer, Stacy. 1993. The loom as a sacred power objects in Huichol culture. In Art in small scale societies, ed. R. Anderson and K. Field, 118-30. New York: Prentice Hall.


Crow Dod, Mary (= Mary Brave Bird). 1994. Lakota woman: Die Gerschichte einer Sioux-Frau. Munich: dtv

Anderson, E.F. 1995. “The ‘peyote gardens’ of south Texas: a conservation crisis?” Cactus & Succulent J. 67:67-73
Schaefer, S. 1995. “The crossing of the souls: peyote, perception and meaning among the Huichol indians of Mexico.” Integration 5:35-49.
Gartz, Jochen. 1995. Ein fruher Versuch der Kommerzialisierun von Peyotl in Deutschland. Intergration 6:45.
Pinkson, Tom Soloway. 1995. Flowers of wirikuta: A gringo’s journey to shamanic power. Mill Valley, Calif.: Wakan Press.
Schaefer, Stacy. 1995. The crossing of the sould: Peyote, perception and meaning among the Huichol Indians of Mexico. Integration 5:35-49.

Anderson, E.F. 1996. Peyote – the divine cactus. (2nd ed.) Univ. of Ariz. Press.
Gennaro, M.C. et al. 1996. “Determination of mescaline in hallucinogenic Cactaceae by ion-interaction HPLC.” Analytical Letters 29(13):2399-2409
Štarha, R. & Kuchyna, J. 1996. “Analysis of Mexican populations of Lophophora (Cactaceae).” Acta Fac. Rerum Nat. Univ. Ostrav. Physica Chemia 156(3/4):67-70.
Deimel, Claus. 1996. Hikuriba – Peyoteriten der Tarahumara. Anischten der Ethnologie 1. Hannover: Niedersachisches Landesmuseum.
Ott, Jonathan. 1996. Lophophora williamsii (Lemaire) Coulter. Unpublished electronic file.
Rouhier, Alexandre. 1996. Die Hellsehen hervorrufenden Pflanzen. Berlin: VWB. (Reprint of 1927 Altmann edition published in Leipzig, translated from the original French by E. Stober.)
Schaefer, Stacy, and Peter T. Furst, eds. 1996. People of the peyote: Huichol Indian history, religion, and survival. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press
Smith, Huston, and Reuben Snake. Eds. 1996. One nation under God: The triumph of the Native American Church. Santa Fe, N.M.: Clear Light Publishers.

Schaefer, Stacy. 1997. Peyote and pregnancy. Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Culture, 1996(5):67-78. Berlin: VWB.

Trout, K. & Friends. 1999. Trout’s Notes on Sacred Cacti – Botany, Chemistry, Cultivation & Utilization (Including notes on some other succulents). 2nd ed., revised. Better Days Production.

2000 Smith, M.S. 2000. Narcotic and Hallucinogenic Cacti of the New World. Better Days Publications.

Franco-Molina, M. et al. 2003. “In vitro immunopotentiating properties and tumour cell toxicity induced by Lophophora williamsii (peyote) cactus methanolic extract.” Phytother. Res. 17(9):1076-1081.


Martin Terry & James D. Mauseth. 2006. Root-shoot anatomy and post-harvest vegetative clonal development in Lophophora williamsii (Cactaceae: Cactaeae): implications for conservation. Sida, 22: 565–592.
Martin Terry, Karen L. Steelman, Tom Guilderson, Phil Dering & Marvin W. Rowe. 2006. Lower Pecos and Coahuila peyote: new radiocarbon dates. Journal of Archaeological Science, 33: 1017–1021.


Kevin Feeney. 2007. The Legal Bases for Religious Peyote Use. In T.B. Roberts & M.J. Winkelman (Eds.), Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogenic Substances as Treatments (Vol. I, pp. 233-250).

Martin Terry. 2007. Cactus Conservation in the US-Mexico Borderlands: Case Studies, 2nd Annual Invitational Cactus Symposium, Powerpoint slides.

Keeper Trout & Burnt Norton. 2010. Peyote in the Wilds of Texas. Erowid. Webpage.


Diana Hulsey, M. Abul Kalam, Paul Daley, Norma Fowler & Martin Terry. 2011. Clinical geographic variations in mescaline concentrations among Texas populations of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 5 (2): 677–683.

Martin Terry. 2011. Regeneration of Lophophora williamsii (Cactaceae) following mummification of its crown by natural freezing events, and some observations on multiple stem formation. Phytologia, 93 (3): 330–340

Martin Terry, Teodoso Herrera, Keeper Trout, Bennie Williams & Norma Fowler. 2011. Limitations to natural production of Lophophora williamsii (Cactaceae) I. Regrowth and survivorship two years post harvest in a South Texas population. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 5 (2): 661–675.


Martin Terry, Teodoso Herrera, Keeper Trout, Bennie Williams & Norma Fowler. 2012. Limitations to natural production of Lophophora williamsii (Cactaceae) II. Effects of repeated harvesting at two-year intervals in a South Texas population. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 6 (2): 567–577.

Martin Terry, Keeper Trout, Bennie Williams & Teodoso Herrera. 2012. Cultivation of peyote by Native Americans: Past, present and future. Annual Meeting of the Society for Economic Botany. Youtube video.


Martin Terry & Keeper Trout. 2013. Cultivation of peyote: a logical and practical solution to the problem of decreased availability. Phytologia, 95 (4): 314–320

M. Abul Kalam, Molly T. Klein, Diana Hulsey, Keeper Trout, Paul Daley & Martin Terry. 2013. A preliminary report of mescaline concentrations in small regrowth crowns vs. mature crowns of Lophophora williamsii (Cactaceae); cultural, economic, and conservation implications. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 7 (1): 435–440.


Keeper Trout, Blake Edwards & Martin Terry. 2014. The Peyote Crisis & Some Suggestions. Editorial. Cactus Conservation Institute.

Martin Terry, Bennie Williams, Teodoso Herrera & Keeper Trout. 2014. The Predicament of the Bordas Escarpment: Ways and Means of Restoring Peyote Habitat in South Texas. Society for Ecological Restoration Event, Powerpoint slides.

Martin Terry, Teodoso Herrera, Keeper Trout, Bennie Williams & Norma Fowler. 2014. Limitations to natural production of Lophophora williamsii (Cactaceae) III. Effects of repeated harvesting at two-year intervals for six years in a South Texas population. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 8 (2): 541–550.

Martin Terry, Keeper Trout & Bennie Williams. 2015. When Cultivation of a Religious Sacrament Equals Manufacturing a Controlled Substance: Effects of the Absence of Adequate Regulatory Structure on the Conservation of Peyote. Advances in Environmental Research. Volume 45, Chapter 3. (Nova Science Publishers) ISBN: 978-1-63483-299-1.

Molly T. Klein, M. Kalam, Keeper Trout, Norma Fowler & Martin Terry. 2015. Mescaline concentrations in three principal tissues of Lophophora williamsii (Cactaceae): Implications for sustainable harvesting practices. Haseltonia 20: 34–42.


Martin Terry & Keeper Trout. 2017. Regulation of peyote (Lophophora williamsii: Cactaceae) in the USA: A historical victory of religion and politics over science and medicine. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 11(1): 147–156.


Keeper Trout. 2019. Peyote Poaching. Editorial. Cactus Conservation Institute.


Edited by Wile E. Peyote
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Hey Wile.E, I commend your efforts. I suspect this list is more or less endless, but two key authors I've come across are Weston La Barre and Barbara Myerhoff, a reference list would not be complete without them (e.g. Myerhoff: Peyote Hunt: The Sacred Journey of the Huichol Indians (1974); La Barre: The Peyote Cult, 1938 - one of the most important early works). Also, consider Schultes 'The Appeal of Peyote (Lophophora Williamsii) as a Medicine', 1938, to add to his others.

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Thanks Micromegas, great suggestions. I'll make sure to review the bibliographies of Schultes, La Barre and Myerhoff and will include any relevant papers in the list :)

Edited by Wile E. Peyote
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Just reviewed Prance, G.T. 2001. Richard Evans Schultes (12 January 1915–10 April 2001): A tribute. Econ Bot 55, 347 for Schultes’ Loph references. I mainly included papers with reference to Loph in the title. I searched for a few of the encyclopaedia style publications (i.e. Schultes, R. E. 1972. The utilization of hallucinogens in primitive societies—use, misuses or abuse.) but was unable to find copies of most of these publications to confirm that they discuss Loph. I also assume most of the data for these more broad publications would be drawn from Schultes’ earlier work on Lophs, most of which takes place in the mid to late 1930s, so these are the works I have included.

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From what I was able to find, Myerhoff only seems to have two more Loph publications besides Peyote Hunt. La Barre has a few more. I found his paper Twenty Years of Peyote Research and used this to mine additional relevant papers also. I have now added all these papers to the list.

Edited by Wile E. Peyote

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I've converted this resource list into a repository by including links to full texts where this is possible on a standalone website. I'm still waiting on replies from many publishers and authors and am planning on making a few more minor changes to the site, but you can now check out The Lophophora Repository and access texts via lophophora.science

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Google Scholar has a a tonne for you to consider.

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Additional references are to be found by plugging "peyote" into booksc.xyz article search. There is a book search option as well. 

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Thanks for your suggestions! I know there are lots of online databases that we could use to find additional texts for the loph repository. An additional strategy would be to review the reference lists of the texts we have found so far. I'd love to do all of this, but at the moment I have my hands full working on getting the rights to publish digital copies of the 200+ texts we have listed so far. If you'd like to put citations or publication rights information in this thread I'm happy to use them to update the repository, but for the moment I don't have the time to search for additional texts :(

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