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Vitamin D's role in mental health

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Hi all long time no post!

A short excerpt from this site http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/mentalIllness.shtml

Admittedly I havent done much cross examination of the evidence, but these guys look pretty legit and the journals theyre quoting are respectable.

The second paragraph offers a very interesting insight into why people go to the beach after big nights out. Monoamine synthesis is moderated by Vitamin D Exposure.

D's Function In The Brain

Garcion, et al, 2002, reviewed clues about vitamin D function in the brain. They concluded 1,25(OH)2D3 is involved in brain function with nuclear receptors for vitamin D localized in neurons and glial cells. Genes encoding the enzymes involved in the metabolism of this hormone are also expressed in brain cells. The reported biological effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the nervous system include the biosynthesis of neurotrophic factors and at least one enzyme involved in neurotransmitter synthesis. 1,25(OH)2D3 can also inhibit the synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase and increase glutathione levels, suggesting a role for the hormone in brain detoxification pathways. Neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects of this hormone have been described in several experimental models, indicating the potential value of pharmacological analogs in neurodegenerative and neuroimmune diseases. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 induces glioma cell death, making the hormone of potential interest in the management of brain tumors. Garcion E, Wion-Barbot N, Montero-Menei CN, Berger F, Wion DNew clues about vitamin D functions in the nervous system.Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Apr;13(3):100–5.

Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme for production of the brain's monoamines. Vitamin D increases expression of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in adrenal medullary cells of mice. Puchacz E, Stumpf WE, Stachowiak EK, Stachowiak MKVitamin D increases expression of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in adrenal medullary cells.Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996 Feb;36(1):193–6. Such a mechanism has been hypothesized to increase brain serotonin levels. Partonen TVitamin D and serotonin in winter.Med Hypotheses. 1998 Sep;51(3):267–8. Deficits of specific GABAergic neurons, defined by the presence of calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin are present in schizophrenia. Beasley CL, Zhang ZJ, Patten I, Reynolds GPSelective deficits in prefrontal cortical GABAergic neurons in schizophrenia defined by the presence of calcium-binding proteins.Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Oct 1;52(7):708–15.

Eyles, et al, at The Queensland Centre for Schizophrenia Research Found that rat pups born to vitamin D deficient dams had profound alterations in the brain at birth. Eyles D, Brown J, Mackay-Sim A, McGrath J, Feron FVitamin D3 and brain development.Neuroscience. 2003;118(3):641–53. Vitamin D is a potent inhibitor of mitosis and promoter of differentiation in numerous cells and specifically decreases the percentage of cultured hippocampal cells undergoing mitosis in conjunction with increases in both neurite outgrowth and nerve growth factor (NGF) in cultured brain cells. Brown J, Bianco JI, McGrath JJ, Eyles DW1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces nerve growth factor, promotes neurite outgrowth and inhibits mitosis in embryonic rat hippocampal neurons.Neurosci Lett. 2003 Jun 5;343(2):139–43.

Lambert, et al, drew arterial and venous blood samples form 101 healthy Australian men over a one-year period and found strong correlations between ambient sunlight and production of serotonin in the brain. Lambert GW, Reid C, Kaye DM, Jennings GL, Esler MDEffect of sunlight and season on serotonin turnover in the brain.Lancet. 2002 Dec 7;360(9348):1840–2.

An alternate explanation, other than vitamin D production, explaining the feeling of well being after sun exposure, is related to the recent discovery of endorphin production by the skin after UV exposure. Wintzen M, Yaar M, Burbach JP, Gilchrest BAProopiomelanocortin gene product regulation in keratinocytes.J Invest Dermatol. 1996 Apr;106(4):673–8. Wintzen M, Zanello SB, Holick MF, Wiegant VM, Burbach JP, Vermeer BJCondition-dependent presence of beta-lipotropin-like peptide in human keratinocytes.Peptides. 2000 May;21(5):691–7. However, two recent studies have been unable to document any increase in circulating endorphins after UVA exposure.

Check out the rest of the site. They mention optimum exposure is only a few minutes with most of the body exposed per day.

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Yes, vitamin D supplements seem to greatly influence the experience and afterglow of tryptamine/indole medicines.

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