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trucha

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About trucha

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    I work for the plants.

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  1. trucha

    spider mites

    Best of success! I've been where you are with pests before and can totally empathize with your decision. If you have concern, wash off the sulfur and let the spider mites return to their full glory before the massacre. It actually should not harm anything if you just went ahead Milbemectin might be tried next if the mites turn out to be resistant to abemectin. Both can be had in concentrated forms that won't have that problem when diluted. I'm not suggesting powder as the risk to the operator and their surroundings is higher than many people are trained for but concentrates like Avid do exist. That solvent you refer to is for forming an emulsion with water. Shake the spraybottle frequently during application so it stays dispersed and use a white sheet to protect from sun afterwards.
  2. trucha

    spider mites

    The residuals of what you’ve been trying might interfere with this getting started but we have had great success using predatory mites to control spider mites and russet mites on a range of plants. Read about them first as how they get introduced is important for good results. Some are better suited for indoor use than others. https://www.buglogical.com/spider-mite-predator/ https://www.arbico-organics.com/category/two-spotted-spider-mite-control-deciduous-fruit-trees https://www.arbico-organics.com/product/mite-predator-phytoseiulus-persimilis-spidermite-killer-greenhouse/pest-solver-guide-mites https://www.gardeninsects.com/spiderMiteControl.asp https://greenmethods.com/persimilis/ There are lots of suppliers but check reviews as this is a live product and not all suppliers are equal. In some cases the mites can’t survive without food so need to be shipped with some green leaves infected white flies or another food source to ensure live arrival. One other thing to keep in mind is that many approaches to pest control either cannot or should not be used on cacti. Anything that harms the waxy outer layer can result in scarring or burning. In some cases this is from losing their protection to the sun but sometimes it is due to the product causing actual damage. Oil sprays in particular should be avoided. Predatory nematodes can be helpful additions to cactus gardens also depending on what pest is causing problems.
  3. trucha

    In-situ Lophophora conservation

    The Taliban seek to rigidly control not only their own group's practice of their religion but everyone else's practice of the same religion (and have neither tolerance nor respect of other religions). This is nothing new of course, Charlemagne did something similar but even more excessive. If a person knew of someone who had not been baptized and did not turn them in or if they did not say their prayers when they were supposed to, the punishment was death. (And in the process the use of plant based intoxicants/sacraments in Europe was either obliterated or driven into secrecy,) Rigid authoritarian control over a religious practice seems almost perverse when it involves psychedelics. To more clearly answer the rest of your question Wile E Peyote,, yes, IPCI intends peyote harvesting and distribution to be a commercial venture., Sandor Iron Rope told VOA that IPCI hoped to be sustaining their operation and educational program through the sales of peyote by next year. Wild harvested of course. Not a realistic goal but it does illuminate something worth understanding.
  4. trucha

    In-situ Lophophora conservation

    Thanks Darklight, when I spoke at EGA I was having a hard time with everything due to being in mid recovery from lyme and babesia duncanii.
  5. trucha

    In-situ Lophophora conservation

    The paper you are looking for at JBRIT is the first paper at the link I sent above for the Cactus Conservation Institute website. When papers are resubmitted to a second journal the titles most often get changed. https://cactusconservation.org/resources/cci-publications/ The first preprint that someone else posted above never went to print and was rejected for not being more narrowly focused. I think the preprint of the JBRIT article is all we have permission to post right now but that should be able to change soon. I don't think it is actually in print yet which is why it does not show up in a search for her name. I will check on that and update this with better info.
  6. trucha

    In-situ Lophophora conservation

    That is a difficult question as most of the habitat in South Texas has been destroyed but in general Jim Hogg and Starr County, while heavily affected, have both good sites and some decent populations left. Those and Webb County are where most harvesting occurs. In many cases it is pointless to try to return plants to some pieces of land as rootplowing has made that land inimical to peyote and that will take decades more to restore the pH gradient that rootplowing upset. This means reintroduction has to be assessed parcel by parcel based on not just suitable habitat but its history of land-clearing. The brush comes back but the upper couple of feet of soil is not the same afterwards. One group is beginning cultivation in Texas (the same people involved with that letter). It will be many years before it produces their Medicine for them so they also plan to become distributors and are hoping to displace the present licensed harvesters and become their replacements as the suppliers of wild harvested peyote. There is much talk of conservation by them. Just don't look too closely at the reality. To hear the tale they have always been champions of conservation of peyote, have always been interested in cultivation, and have used peyote as a traditional practice for thousands of years (rather than beginning between the 1880s and the 1990s as is true for most NAC groups) yet the original peyote people in South Texas for whom that is true lack any legal right to consume it since they are not members of federally recognized tribes. The thought that seems to be forgotten is that religious freedom is guaranteed for none if not protected for all. The NAC has the right to peyote due to an act of Congress in 1993 and it is not based on the First Amendment Right to Religion. What Congress can give, Congress can also someday take away if they ever change their minds. That letter did get peyote excluded from what did occur but the bill is a positive movement. Even if it is not passed this time, the movement is afoot. It is ironic a shortage of peyote was given as the reason for denying cultivation in California. "Hippies" still get blamed by many people for causing peyote to become scarce but that is misdirection. All harvesting combined pales in comparison to land loss. The belief voiced in the Oakland discussions is all those people with interest are all going to have to go to Texas and get some peyote from the distributors or through poaching in order to grow or use it (this is almost silly as there is no legal channel as the law would only affect California and an average person going to harvest illegally is not going to be very successful) However, in reality, LOTS of people in California already are growing peyote and have been for a long time. Just not the NAC outside of a few individuals. I suspect there is as much or more peyote already in the hands of nonNAC cultivators in California as is eaten in any given year in California by the NAC. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/feb/17/california-bill-decriminalize-psychedelic-drugs
  7. This work needs updating but a possibly useful pdf is Cactus Chemistry By Species. Free as a pdf at troutsnotes.com [https://troutsnotes.com/pdf/CactusChemistry_2013_Light.pdf] or at archive.org.
  8. I'd suggest not trusting the claims on A. laetus made by Wade Davis. Or at least regarding them with caution. MAYBE his field data is based on what someone told him but when I asked him about the claim he had made about it undergoing testing, he said McKenna had found mescaline in it. He repeated this to me again, apparently after speaking with Dennis. Problem was I had also asked Dennis by then, who said he never analyzed any cactus beyond a Dragendorff field test and he had never found mescaline in a cactus. Davis responded to this revelation not by owning his bs but by saying I needed to try it. The most important element in that suggestion is Davis did not ingest it or see it being ingested and based his account on anecdote. I suspect someone was just being helpful towards an ethnobotanist wanting to be told about more plants. It would not be the first time this has occurred of course. A. laetus HAS been analyzed and reported to contain nothing of interest. A more detailed look would be nice but don't put too much weight in this area.
  9. trucha

    In-situ Lophophora conservation

    Also, on Anya's paper. I enjoyed that too but be aware this was a preprint required to be posted by the publisher who decided to not publish it due to not having a narrow enough focus so it did not go to print in this form. The final version appeared in Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas under another title after being rewritten to focus only on the data for her study and its design. It is nice that the preprint requirement made the earlier version available in perpetuity. Both versions are worth reading. A preprint of the version that did go to press is available at https://cactusconservation.org/resources/cci-publications/
  10. trucha

    In-situ Lophophora conservation

    I wish I had answers. European suppliers are the only sources of a diverse selection of seeds with locality data right now. A problem with some is low viability due to self-fertilization or old age of seeds. Assurances of accurate knowledge about their genetics would be nice but I know of no way to check or confirm it. A big challenge with this picture is some of the primary players increasingly are resembling the Taliban. Ponder this letter written with the intention of countering Decriminalize Nature. Neither mescaline nor trichocereus are NAC sacraments (or at least they have repeatedly said that) AND Trichocereus are completely legal to grow and possess. IPCI-NAC statement_1.15.2021VersionSenWienerF.pdf
  11. trucha

    In-situ Lophophora conservation

    Sorry to respond to such an old post but I don't get on forums much anymore. There is a question whether introducing wild plants brings something unnatural to the mix. People complain about wolf re-introductions too. To be successful, at least from my point of view, one ideally wants to use the sort of genetics as came from that locality. And we actually quite often do have those thanks to European cultivators who have been actively maintaining peyote lineages for a century or more. But is this a real concern in this instance, and if so how much? Peyote in South Texas clearly did not originate in what is now the Peyote Gardens as most of that landform is less than 11.5K years old. The Gulf (and ocean levels) was almost 500 feet shallower back then so a lot of where people lived at that time is now underwater as people like to congregate near the coast. Humans often have an idea of there being some primordial static state of perfection but the reality is all healthy and robust ecosystems are in flux and constantly changing and this has always been true. That appears to be the story of life. Fragile ecosystems tend to arise when pressures of one sort or another are absent and create a unique and magical picture that cannot survive those pressures (ground nesting birds for example can be really heavy hit or even obliterated when rats, pigs, dogs or snakes are introduced). These special ecosystems are more akin to museum displays than to robust ecosystems. When we value them, we have to work to protect them or we rapidly lose them as they lack resiliance. Peyote is not a fragile plant and it approaches being weedy in vigor. Ponder almost all of its habitat being wiped out in South Texas (95%+ according to some estimates) yet people still being able to harvest a million plus plants every year via legal channels and multiples of that illegally. The question arises, let's say it was possible to get landowner permission to replant peyote someplace where there was no more, is that harmful if the activity is possible? If so, how and why? There are a lot of repopulation efforts ongoing involving everything from star cactus to saguaros to the zapata bladderpod. Strangely I don't hear those complained about the same way as I do peyote. Sometimes looking at who is speaking can be illuminating too as often what is also included is the idea that it is wrong to cultivate peyote anywhere for any reason. I'd suggest repopulation of peyote would cause fewer harmful ecological effects than did its removal by rootplowing and land conversion and those activities would make more sense to be seeing objections. Introduction of plants rather than seeds will maximize the success. To do that a period of cultivation is required. It would however be pointless to just plant out a bunch of plump, lush peyotes and expect them to still be there the next year. Hardening off is part of any successful repopulation strategy. Wolf reintroduction is a great example of why we should sometimes reintroduce species that we've removed. People still actively try to wipe these out when they are released. Mainly ranchers. However, aspen trees had gone into a serious decline from saplings being destroyed due to elk overpopulation after removal of the wolves. After their releases aspens are beginning to come back. Clearly those wolves are not killing that many elk but their presence did appear to rapidly affect the fertility rate. Nature is connected like a tapestry. South Africa provides another example of why intervention can be good if it is on a solid conceptual basis. Vaccination of cattle against rinderpest led to less disease in wildebeest. Wildebeest populations rebounded led to grass fire suppression. Grass fire suppression led to more Acacias surviving which enabled the dwindling giraffe population to also rebound. Prior to that the approach had been exterminating wildebeest on the mistaken notion they gave it to the cattle rather than vice versa. Helping address the problems we cause commonly produces a cascade of unexpected positive results. Blindly repopulating single species can be potentially fraught with some problems if done mindlessly (introduction of endophytes or insects and pathogens in imported soil, or replacement with a plant people think is somehow similar to what is gone and it proves to lack controls and becomes aggressively weedy, for examples) but it is also a powerful and important tool. Back to peyote. I'd love to know the perceived dangers of its repopulation. Feel free to email me to discuss this. I have no qualms about anything I say being shared but often lack enough free time for participating in forums or social media.
  12. trucha

    A video about peyote

    The Peyote Files with Dr. Martin Terry, A 3 part documentary series co-directed by Bia Labate and Nicholas Spier. The premiere is Tuesday, Feb 16th at 10 pm PST. A trailer: https://youtu.be/NYGivLwfCkA You can also see more information at https://cactusconservation.org/2021/02/10/peyote-files-documentary/
  13. trucha

    Another paper

    Steven Barker is a good worker and a really nice guy, I've been a fan of his for many years. His goals in this line of work (in and beyond this one paper) do not seem to be totally overlapping with Rick Strassman's though. I am in complete agreement that DMT will be found to play some type of role in mammalian neurochemistry but I'd be happy to enter into a wager that the idea a large release DMT at a psychedelic level occurs at birth and death turns out to be pop science. Similarly the cycle of pineal chemistry he described in The Spirit Molecule is at best implausible. I've talked with Rick Strassman on these topics, starting not long after his first book came out. I like him and I enjoy his thoughts but his weak point is having an attachment to proving his theories. Rick Strassman is a medical doctor who is engaged in some interesting research. He is not an actual research scientist. The mark of good scientist is always being open to both exploring the possibility and even to learning that they are wrong. "Proving something" does exist in mathematics and in applied sciences. In pure science, a theory is supposed to be evaluated for having a solid basis of plausibility (which is what Barker has been doing very well) and then rigorous attempts to disprove the actual theory are supposed to be made. (Not the established biochemistry but the package that is also being presented concerning, birth, death, NDE etc.) There are no doubt plenty of people who will disagree with that idea as the alternative path is easier but I'd rather trust the people I learned from as to how good science should be done. If a person sets out to prove a cherished theory, especially if they are attached to having a particular outcome, there is a danger they may stop too soon (sometimes as soon as they see some evidence potentially supporting their ideas) or create approaches that contain sampling biases, and other flaws. A heck of a lot of poorly done science exists right now. (Not counting the actual wealth of BAD science and bogus results one can find flying past peer reviewers in disturbing numbers but that is a separate subject that merits a book of its own.) That last reference cited above contains a lot of interesting reading for such a short piece (by both Barker and by Nichols). Barker, S. A. (2018). N,N-dimethyltryptamine facts and myths. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 32(7), 820–821. doi:10.1177/0269881118767648 url to share this paper: sci-hub.se/10.1177/0269881118767648
  14. trucha

    Lophophora varieties

    I made a post at our website https://cactusconservation.org/blog/2019/06/30/bbnp-peyote-is-now-extirpated-i-e-made-locally-extinct/
  15. trucha

    Rhynchites auratus

    What did you use to capture that beautiful image? Very nice!
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