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The Corroboree

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    amateur plant surgeon

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  1. Change

    Does street lighting affect flowering.

    Fungi use light as a trigger for pins, by signaling to the mycelium that its broken through the surface of the medium and is ready to fruit. The street light hypothesis seems to be more to do with, breaking the dark cycles, tricking the plant into thinking the seasons are changing, which isnt so revevant to cactus or fungi.With fungi, as far as im aware, they arent monitoring day length to trigger different stages of reproduction. Instead they are just digesting, building up metabolic strengh in a tempurare dependent fashion, so when the time is right they can fruit, light triggersthis but does not feed the process,For example more light wont make more pins neither will changing light cycles, a few minutes light to trigger to process is all they need, and it doesnt matter what time this occurs.
  2. Change

    Does street lighting affect flowering.

    I agree with EG Alot of my flowering Trichos frequently have lights on above them at all sorts of odd hours. It would suck of trichos needed to stay dark at night, cos thats my fav time to look at them. Also im pretty sure flowering is triggers by cold dormant cycles rather then light. I think this because people living on the coast seem to have a harder time to get there plants to flower compared to those living inland where it gets much colder.
  3. Change

    Rate my setup

    Hey there, Gimili is spot on the money, cactus loving being in the ground, cos they really slow down their rate of growth once root bound. But hey, not everyone is lucky enough to be able to plant cactus in the ground. If your in this boat (like me), my advice would be to cut a lot of holes in the bottom of your pots to allow your plants access to the soil, this way they wont get root bound, but you can still easily cut the roots and move them if/when need be. Your terracotta pots look beautiful, but they are too small to grow healthy cactus in, perhaps good for rooting cuttings, but youll need to repot them within a year. The black pots your using look a little better and should provide you with 2-3 years active growth before root bounding occurs. I like to use 9L buckets until I can establish a good-sized root ball, at which point they go into massive pots that have access to the soil below. I really wished I started planting all my fav cactus in huge pots when I first started growing them, it took me a few years to work this out. Unless your trying to bonsai your cacti little pots are a waste of time. Next things I wanted to say was the plants in your greenhouse, are at a size where they can be adjusted to full sun. There isn’t much advantage to growing trichos and tbms in humid environments. The sooner they can be harden them off into full sun, the better they will grow. That being said, your greenhouse isn’t a total waste of time, get some shade cloth on it, fill it with peres, and by the end of the season youll be able to graft up a small army of seedlings (tricho seedlings and peres love heat and humidity). Then you can tell you girlfriend about the farmers markets, and while she is there buying fruits and veggies you can plant all your degrafted 10cms seedlings. Hahaha, I just cant understand the logic of you guys and your veggies gardens. You know they sell veggies at the supermarkets right….. haha, or if your one of these organic hipsters who doesn’t like round up sprayed on your food you can always visit the farmers markets And while your at it, get some seasol, cactus love fertilizer, just go easy with the nitrogen. Happy Gardening
  4. great points i hadnt considered, thanks for commenting. I guess the cicadas dont seem to be having a problem with the situation. Its amazing what life adapts to.
  5. Yep, This is soooo crazy. Thanks for sharing. Imagine whats gonna happen when these types of psychedelic producing micro-organisms enter the Human microbiome and form a symbiotic relationship. Only a few weeks ago, I recall listening to a Shulgin lecture where he was talking about the possibility that if Humans had significant concentrations of endogenous psychedelics compounds naturally, they would have most likely died off during early stages of evolution. Eg if your brain sends you into strong psychedelics states randomly, and this occurred at the same time you needed to defend your life against some sort of wild bear, tiger, or yeti, you probably wouldn’t last that long, compared to the humans that didn’t randomly slip into these states of mind. If things got crazy and these type of micro-organisms spread in large quantities across the globe, I could imagine the next logical step would be medications to block the receptor sites and prevent us from randomly slipping into altered states of consciousness all the time. This idea really freaks me out, which is why I hope none of the GMO psychedelic producing strains of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae ever escape the laboratory and enter the environment. It is sorta inevitable though, at some point, someones gonna make a simple mistake by removing something from the laboratory that’s been contaminated (with a psychedelic producing strain of bacteria). Humans are prone to making mistakes and when it happens, we will have to deal with the consequences.
  6. Change

    New tool album out today

    30.8.19 A fictional tale of Curly Locks first listen, It was a cold, wet, drizzly morning, but after 13 years waiting the time had finally arrived. The sun was just starting to rise, however it looked like a grey sky would prevent the sun from shining on this long awaited, glorious day. Curly locks quickly consumed some breakfast, fuelling his body for what will most likely be the longest and most highly anticipated album of his lifetime, Fear Inoculum. After having a quick browse online, he could see the album was available and ready to stream, but after 13 years of waiting he decided to wait a few more hours. So Curly Locks took a few shots of a revoltingly bitter brew and jumped on his bike to go to the shops to try and buy a real copy of this album. Much to Curly Locks disappointment, purchasing a real copy of this album was not possible, nevertheless, nothing could bring Curly Locks mood down on a day like today, so he grabbed his bike, headed home and prepared for inoculation. Curly wasn’t sure whether to have the first listen through headphones or blasting out of speakers, so after some consideration he decided to setup an old speaker system that hadn’t been used in almost 4 years. Once they were setup, Curly put on an old Tool album, pumped up the volume, closed off the house, and went outside to spark a fatty while making sure the volume was loud enough to become fully immersed in the music, while not upsetting the neighbourhood to any significant degree. The last thing Curly wanted was some angry neighbours knocking on his door while his mind is melting and his body is rocking out like he was back at Big Day Out 2007 in his prime. So the stage was set, the walls were starting to breath, and the fatty had almost finished burning, so it was time to hit play. Track 1: Fear Inoculum; Epic way to start, Tool are back, back and sounding better than ever Track 2: Pneuma; holy shit this one was mind expanding, as the guitar riffs echoes around the room Curly noticed the roof, the walls, the floor, everything is now covered in vibrating guitar strings vibrating in synchronistic order. He doesn’t know how it was possible, but it was as if the lyrics were coming from different directions in space, with the vocals in Curlys left ear completing the previous sentence that was being sung into his right ear. The epic layering and breathtakingly stunning visual display this track had evoked left Curly knowing one thing, it didn’t matter how the rest of the album sounded, it was already a complete psychedelic master piece at 2 songs/20 mins in. And don’t get Curly started on how groovee the bongo build up/break down is, holy shit its so rocky and grooveey at the same time. Perfect for dancing your way into a trance like state. Track 3: Litanie Contre La Peur; provided a much-needed break, with some really strange noises that in no uncertain manner made Curly very aware of how far away from reality his mind had been transported. At this point in time Curly hit pause, stepped outside, sparked another fatty while gazing at some sexy nitrogen hybrids, wow, just wow, what a time to be alive and breathing. A few mins later he jumped back inside, and un-paused the album. Track 4: Invincible; wow, just wow, it rocked so hard, the way they had used/reworked the guitar strum, rhythm section of Jambi and built it into something even bigger and more powerful left Curly in absolute awe. The spirit of a warrior contained in an epic 12.45 mins track. Mindblown. Track 5: Legion Inoculant; another noise/filler track, but wow, with epic volume and strong bass, this one left Curly feeling like he was swimming underneath an ocean on a different planet. Really strong powerful vibrations fill the room as Maynard whispers “Bless this immunity” in the most psychedelic fashion imaginable. Track 6: Descending; holy f##king sh*t, the guitar sound that drops around the 7min mark sounds so primal, the sound is so amazing, words just cant explain how great this song is. This is the sorta shit that inspires future guitar legends to push music to the next level, this is the definition of progressive rock. As Curly absorbs the sounds he wonders, why does this album evoke emotions comparable to falling in love, then he realises, its because he is in love, and after 13 years of not letting go of his love for this band, that bond has just deepened to an unmeasurable level. Then the synth sounds at approx 10 min mark are like revisiting the old days, Third eye from Anemia all over again. Another masterpiece. Track 7: Culling Voices; reminds Curly a lot of Disposition and Reflection from Lateralus, not so much the sounds or rhythm, but more the feeling it evokes. After making it this far into such a heavy rock album, this track is perfectly placed to give the listener a chance to relax, and reflect upon whats just happened. Then towards the ending the lyrics “don’t you dare point that at me” are so banging, calmly peacefully banging, to the flow of the groove. Tool fans are going to be singing this for decades just like they all love to sing “learn to swim” Track 8: Chocolate Chip Trip; well that was a mind-melting synth/drum solo that left Curly feeling like he had been transported into some sort of 80s styled arcade game. Track 9: 7empest; This ones probably the hardest track on the album to describe, clocking in at 15.44 mins its so epic, and so huge, its probably going to take many more listens to fully appreciate. The intricate percussion at the intro is ripped apart with the wildest shredding guitar tone ive heard in a long time, god I love it. Its really takes you back to the early Tool sound. So heavy, so passionate. Track 10: Mockingbeat: outro noise filler track, left Curly in amazement and awe. After 13 years finally another Tool album had arrived, and after the first listen he knows its going to be the soundtrack to the next decade to come. For the rest of the afternoon Curly popped on some headphones and walking around the garden enjoying the album for 3 more listens in a row. Headbanging, and dancing around like a fool, puffing upon fatties and enjoying the great vibes. It was a beautiful day indeed and Curly would happily wait another 13 years for something this good. Bless this immunity Bless Tool
  7. Ive gone off the DNA sequencing idea, mostly because it doesn’t answer the questions im asking in the first place and would end up being an expensive experiment that doesn’t help with much more other than IDing plants or trying to trace back their evolutionary origins (both of which could be decades of work). A few years back I was really interested in attempting to work out the underlying mechanisms causing funky phenotypes in cactus, for example TBMs and Nitrogen hybrids. But these days I realise the answer to these questions is unlikely to be found via DNA sequencing and instead would require RNA sequencing. Furthermore my focus has changed from external to internal, so rather than caring about what is causing phenotypes, im now more fascinated with understanding metabolism, and metabolite accumulation and the best way to study metabolism is RNA sequencing because it provides direct evidence as to what genes are actively being expressed, as opposed to DNA sequencing which tells you what exist within the genome but gives no indication of expression levels. Currently we have no evidence to suggest that mutant cactus phenotypes are being caused by mutated genes, and its just as likely that none of the metabolic genes are mutated but instead sections of regulatory DNA (promotors / enhancers/ or silencers) or perhaps transcription factor binding sites and or sRNA binding sites might be mutated, causing dysregulated gene expression, resulting in mutated phenotypes. Therefore, to gain a better understanding of whats going on, RNA sequencing from both wild type and mutant plants would provide useful information into the differences between gene expression within the two groups of plants. One of my colleagues just had 12 Arabidopsis plants (6 mutants, 6 wild type) RNA sequenced by AGRF and the cost was approximately 10k. Sadly without some wealthy backers to fund my research project this will probably just remain another idea on the list of things I wish I could afford to do. I cant comment on SDN-1 knockouts as I have no experience working with them. My research group uses SALK Institute knockout lines of Arabidopsis (T-DNA insertional mutants), as well as the Agrobacterium mediated transformation method to create transgenic populations. Both the mutants and the transgenic plants require PC2 facility and must remain within the quarantine zone at all times. It would be fantastic if we could use SDN-1 to make the same mutants and grow them in uncertified glass houses, as recently the reproductive group gained approval to demolish several million dollars’ worth of PC2 glass houses which they are in the process of replacing with a mice testing facility (PETA protestors welcomed). This has significantly reduced the space available for plant research as well as prevented us from working with species that are to large to fit inside growth cabinets. Its crazy to think reproductive research is receiving higher priority compared to plant research, when we already have an overpopulation problem, and the current projections suggest agricultural yield trends will be insufficient to feed our growing population by 2050. But this is all a result of Australian university’s shifting there focus to industry funded research with the goal of increasing profits rather than fundamental research with the goal of expanding knowledge.
  8. Change

    details when trading online?

    Great idea freakosystem, When filling in the sender info, ill put my name, mobile number and the address of my local post office. This way if the buyer needs to contact me directly, they can by phone, then if the package cant be delivered and needs to be returned, I assume the post office would call me. Not sure if this strategy would work, but it seems solid, and avoids the need to share your address. Sadly my cactus collection was targeted by thieves almost 2 years ago. Due to my foolish, trusting nature I had shared my postage details with heaps of members for trades, giveaways, and purchases. While I don’t think I was targeted by another member here, ill never know for certain, and with the wisdom of hindsight I’d suggest being very careful who you share your details with. Being cautious and slowly building up a network of trusted individuals your happy to trade plants with is going to work out much better in the long run, rather then sharing your details with every man and his dog just so you don’t miss out on a trading opportunity. Once your trust in people is broken its difficult if not impossible to be restored, so its better you protect yourself from the beginning.
  9. Change

    Post your track of the day

    13 years of waiting, talk about a lesson in patience.
  10. The best way to learn how much sun is to much sun is an experiment. If you spend a few seasons experimenting with your growing location youll soon work out which part of your garden receives the best sunlight for growing mature plants, for rooting cuttings, and for transitioning seedlings into mature plants. Then if the cactus bug bites you hard enough youll probably need to find the perfect spot for grafting and germination. Shade cloth can be very helpful. Each to their own, but I don’t fancy rooting cutting sideways, it my experience it slows everything down. During plant embryo formation, the tip and base of the plant is established in an up and down fashion. Plants are constantly regulating their polarity, for example, if cactus tips are planted at a 45-degree angle, give it long enough and the new growth will return to straight (leaving you with a bend at the base). Why, because the plant can sense up from down, and it’s looking to grow up. If the plants polarity is changed, energy is going to be spent moving around internal organelles to the positions they need to be to function, rather they just continuing to function because everything is normal. Plants are using photons CO2 and H2O to produce carbohydrates (photosynthesis), which they use as an energy source (glycolysis). After the cactus has been cut, the majority of its stored energy will be used to produce callus tissue and roots. While I don’t think the cactus needs to photosynthesize and produce energy to initiate rooting (cactus will root in a dark cupboard). I have noticed cactus root faster when exposed to moderate sunlight. This leads me to speculate that moderate sunlight may be increasing the speed of rooting through triggering light activated gene expression. Many important metabolic plant genes are regulated by light, so it makes sense that exposing them to some sun would help during rooting.
  11. I’ve pondered using EMS on cactus seeds for a few years now. However, the consequences of exposure are to severe and I prefer to play on the safe side. Oryzalin is another good candidate, but it suffers from the same problems as EMS, after treatment is performed how are you going to clean off all the remaining mutagen? Can you be 100% sure it was all removed and how will it now be disposed of? And is that worth risking mutating your own genetics? Perhaps consider other methods of mutation that do not require the use of chemical treatments for example, radiation sources such as UV rays or X-rays will introduce mutations to DNA. The advantage with these treatments is after they have been performed, there is no need to try and clean away nasty chemicals, so the seeds are much safer to plant and grow. If you do try mutagenesis using a radiation source, and none of your seeds germinate, this means your rate of mutation was to high and you need to reduce the duration or intensity of exposure. Youll want to find a balance where enough mutation is introduced to create interesting phenotypes but not enough as to be lethal to the seed. Performing mutagenesis upon cactus seeds is rather quick, but it takes alot more time, energy and space to grow them all into adults. There were a few threads/expiriments on the Nook but i think the threads died well before the resulting seedlings reached maturity.
  12. Change

    Another paper

    Here are some interesting review papers on the topic, for those looking for more reading https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2018.00536/full https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2018.00232/full https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0269881117736919?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed Interestingly DMT has been shown to inhibit the function of INMT, which has led to the theory that the biosynthesis of DMT would not be able to achieve concentrations required to activate the required receptors. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bi500175p Ill copy paste the conclusion from the third paper, for those interested in a quick summary. Conclusion Based on the studies reviewed above, a number of conclusions seem to merit consideration. 1. DMT is not produced in concentrations significant to activate CNS 5-HT2A receptors, and is rapidly broken down by MAO if it is produced. 2. There is no evidence to suggest that DMT can accumulate within the brain or within neurons at physiologically relevant concentrations; such inferences are either not supported by direct experimental evidence or are based on flawed experiments. 3. Endorphins, especially DYN, are released during stress, and DYN has very high affinity for the KOR, which can mediate hallucinations and out of body experiences. Other endorphins can mediate euphoria and analgesia through activation of mu or delta opioid receptors. 4. Asphyxiation or cardiac arrest paradoxically lead to brain activation and result in marked increases of brain neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and 5-HT, the latter of which can stimulate 5-HT2A receptors. 5. Asphyxia induces excessive release of the excitatory amino acid, glutamate. Drugs such as ketamine, which also raise cortical glutamate, can produce out of body experiences. 6. Although the romantic notion that DMT is released from the pineal gland to produce altered states of consciousness at various times of stress is appealing to some, more well-studied systems provide more sound explanations for out of body experiences.
  13. Change

    Another paper

    Thanks for the responses everyone, Maybe I will write them an email, but I should probably spend a little more time reading their previous publications first to gain a greater perspective of their past work. Perhaps a lot of my questions have already been answered in past publications, and I wouldn’t want to waste their time repeating themselves. The whole subject is so fascinating, which gets my brain ticking with a lot of questions. So if the theory is, DMT is produced at death, my focus turns to, how can that be regulated? If it wasn’t regulated people would randomly be experiencing this state of mind all the time and perhaps a small percentage of people already do. But if we understood how it was regulated, maybe we could manipulate this level of regulation to induce this phenomena without the need to induce cardiac arrest. Considering if it (DMT produced at death) exists, it must be regulated, leds to several hypothesis including (1) does some sort of signalling molecule trigger the transcription of these enzymes when near death states are being experienced? Allowing for DMT biosynthesis to occur, Or (2) are these enzymes already present but an inhibitor molecule prevents there action, then in times of near death states, a signalling molecule triggers the breakdown of the inhibitor allowing the enzymes to function. If the first is occurring, then its amazing that our bodies can detect imminent death and have the time to produced enzymes, then time for the enzymes to function, allowing for biosynthesis to occur. For this reason, the second hypothesis makes more sense because I assume transcription and translation would be wasting valuable time when your seconds away from kicking the bucket. However, I am not sure how to determine how long these processes actually take to occur. Then again, maybe im way off the mark and its regulated by a completely different mechanism, or maybe this phenomena doesn’t even exist. Either way it’s fun to think about.
  14. Change

    Another paper

    Thanks for sharing, that was an interesting read. Ill kick start the discussion by sharing a few thoughts I had while reading the paper. In situ hybridization isn’t the best technique to demonstrate DMT is produced within brain tissues. In situ hybridization allows for visualization of mRNA. Ok so now we know INMT and AADC mRNA has been detected within these tissues. But do we know if INMT and AADC mRNA completes to process of translation to produce functional enzymes? They make a big deal in this study about being the first time to demonstrate INMT and AADC mRNA co-localise within the same cells. But this isn’t the important factor, the important factor is does translation occur allowing both enzymes to function within the same cell? I feel this paper would have been strengthened by examining the protein/enzyme levels not just the mRNA level. Secondly demonstrating the required enzymes mRNA exist in mice and human brain tissues, but only demonstrating the detection of DMT within mice tissues and not human tissues further weakens this publication. If they have the human brain tissues to perform in situ hybridization on, why not perform HPLC as well? Or maybe they did but didn’t publish the results because it didn’t confirm their hypothesis? This would be important data to publish because without it they are relying upon the assumption that INMT and AADC exclusively function to produce DMT when in reality they could perform their function upon a vast number of additional substrates that do not contribute to the DMT biosynthetic pathway. And finally, its amazing to think they have developed mice without pineal glands, and quite interesting that the mice with and without pineal glands produced statistically similar concentrations of DMT. Regardless of my minor criticisms it’s an interesting read and I hope this group gains additional funding, so they can continue their work in the future.
  15. Change

    Using chemicals on Psychedelic Plants

    H202 (hydrogen peroxide), is an oxidising agent, so it has the potential to change chemical structures, but its far more likely that H202 will oxidise the cell wall rather than the metabolites within the cell, when exposed to a plant. Its highly unlikely that hormones could be causing chemical changes to plant metabolites. Hormones are signalling molecules that interact with receptors triggering conformational changes to receptors, or binding to DNA, triggering changes to gene expression. Enzymes perform biological chemical reactions, like for example there will be an enzymatic pathway which converts molecules step by step towards their final structure. So it may be possible for hormones to increase or decrease the rate at which enzymes are transcribed, which will affect the speed of metabolite accumulation. Often these pathways have bottlenecks, where one enzymatic reaction is performed at much lower rates then other parts of the pathway. Plant biologists study these enzymatic pathways looking for such bottlenecks, because if the enzymatic reaction is a 10 step process, but steps 3 & 4 are catalysed at slower rates then the rest of the pathway, its can be possible to use gmo technology to increase the rates of transcription for the enzyme that is slowing the pathway down, which will bring about overall yield increases of desired metabolites. For example; gmo poppies strains have been developed in this manner to specifically produce low accumulating alkaloids which are used to produce a lot of the semi synthetic opioids we see on the market today. If you want to find out if a plant hormone has the potential to change to rates of transcription of a specific gene/enzyme, you would need to locate the enzymes promotor sequence and search it for hormone response elements. If you find it, there is the potential this gene/enzyme is regulated by whatever hormone response element you have located, but even then it would take a lot more work to prove this experimentally.
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