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  1. 18 likes
    Sent some samples away to be tested, below are pics of the samples and the test results. These were tested by - http://alvalab.es who i can recommend as a very good business where you can get samples tested. I encourage people to do this, pay a couple bucks and get your mushrooms tested. Subs from an isolated area, Eucalyptus forest, restricted area, so very little foot traffic etc... Sent these as the 'control' sample so i had results to compare the other two samples to. (lol) Gill freaks, growing in a dark pine forest, pines are probs, 10+ yrs old, pines in this spot previously felled and re planted. White gills, growing in an open pine coup, felled a couple of years ago and replanted with new pines The tef sequences for the three samples, 1, 2 and 3, in that order Knowing nothing about DNA results or how to interpret them i fwd'd the results to a couple people who do, thank you to those people. Conclusion is - sample 1 - 100% P. subaeruginosa sample 2 - 98% P. subaeruginosa sample 3 - 98% P. subaeruginosa Interestingly i found out during this that there has not been enough work done with P. subaeruginosa to reference these results against other P. subaeruginosa results. Results from P. cyanescens which P. subaeruginosa are very closely related are used to asses subaeruginosa DNA results. This is how i understand it, though i may be wrong.
  2. 18 likes
    When I first heard about aya in 2000, I hopped online and bought a bunch of ingredients from a supplier in Britain, and had my first journeys alone in the garden. They were powerful and great. I was also lucky enough to meet the "right guy" back then, and got a vine and all our other favorite plants. Whilst my vine was maturing, I was going thru my shroom stage. But would smoke vine leaf, the shrooms and vine would activate each other, and I could start my relationship with it. After 8 years I started making my own brews, it is a teacher plant, and those with patience, will find the instruction manual encoded within the medicine. After 10 years, I heard of people doing Ceremony in Australia, I had sorted out all my transpersonal stuff years ago and needed to pay for a brew like a "hole in the head". But one mob had a famed acupuncturist /healer as a regular, and I went to that first circle mainly to snag a dry needle torture session from him. They seen how experienced I was and invited me to be on crew. And I worked with the public, up to 20 at a time, from all over the world, many experienced from the amazon. After 5 years I witnessed most everything that can happen.Possessions and the like. They used imported amazon brew, and I would smoke my vine, so it would get all the latest plant goss and updates from the Amazon. (end of pre-amble) People go on about dialogue and relationship, getting messages from the vine. If they were not so self absorbed and self centered, and listened to what the vine needed, they would know this. These plants are like all the rest, they have one agenda, to be propagated.(in the ground and in peoples hearts) Plants have flowers and fruits, to appeal to insects and birds, to propagate them. Plants have food and medicinal properties to appeal to humans, to propagate them. To ensure they wont go extinct. The most successful plant is Cannabis. Its appeal has seen it spread to every part of the world, and genetically improved etc. It will only go extinct in a global catastrophe. The vine was in the jungle going, "what the fuck is all this logging?, whats with all this mining?, why are the shamans harvesting more for all these new big Ceremonies?, who are these people from all over the world? Well they look like my ticket to safety". And the vine left the jungle to be propagated around the world, minimizing its extinction possibility. So anybody who doesn't grow a vine, is missing the plants needs. Grow an Orange tree, and you will be rewarded with an annual harvest of fresh fruit. Grow a vine and you will be rewarded with "magical" abilities, and the latest upgrades of vibrational frequencies. The nurture you put into your vine will pay you back many fold and in inter-dimensional ways. Take it from my experience that serving your own brew, as compared to a sourced brew, even if its a grouse amazon concoction with chaliponga and all, is chalk and cheese. So, Im glad Ive never been to the Amazon (im sure its quite dandy) or even met a proper shaman. I dont want all the distraction of Cultural Context. Lots of it smoke and mirrors showmanship. The least interference between you and the medicine, often the better. At the end of the day, it is just your Central nervous system and cerebral cortex with the plants. Safety is the main thing, and when facilitating I draw more from a background in OHS, QA and Manual Handling Trainer than feathers and crystals. Big circles are a new tradition,to cater for the demand, but they also encourage commerce and the greed that goes with it. Most of the time they are a psychic soup of clutter. When they go off the rails, yes they are total trainwrecks. Here and the Amazon. (i decided to venture out and pay for my first circle in years a few weeks ago, and it crashed) Traditionally a villager and the shaman would work one on one, which ironically is my current method. All I can report is I have well traveled folks from all over the world, who have drank with all the shaman and a night with me actually under the vine ranks as special and sometimes more beneficial than other their more traditional experiences. This is something to think about. The Shamans vine is hidden in the jungle, its not his...the jungle nurtures it. You dont see it or touch it. This is a new thing. You can have your own vine, feed it with your DNA, bury your dogs under it, sprinkle you Mums ashes on it, nurture it, grow potentiated shrooms under it, or any value adding ritual. Its like planting a Genie.....(that takes 10 years to come out of the bottle), that can train you in magic. To show us their appeal these entheogenic plants need to get inside people. So the gardener, once trained by the plant, and both plant and gardener have complete faith and trust in each others powers and talents. The gardener has a duty to propagate" the spirit" of the plant into people. To plant that esoteric seed. And safe set and setting is the ground to plant that spirit seed. And any enhancements and healings are the fertaliser to make it grow. Anyhow, what am I trying to say..... You can always consider taking your medicine with a gardener as an option to shaman. And that's my reasonably informed opinion on Ayahausca. And having said that, Ive recommended a few folks go to "the temple of light" (as an anthropologist friend wrote her thesis on them) And they do an excellent job, and have plants you can see and touch.
  3. 13 likes
    I've been working on it for a while, maybe 10 years. It went unconditional today. I've finally bought a place with land, a home, a retreat, a track for the kids to ride their bikes, the forest next door but not close to the house, a huge shed, close to work, an outdoor area, humid and lush. For those of you who have done this before I tip my hat, it almost drove me nuts. It's a long path with many choices filled with pros and cons, sacrifices and benefits. Now I'm planning greenhouses and chicken coops, raised beds and natural fences.
  4. 10 likes
    No worries Cubism, Everybody is still stuck on who to drink with and where. Shackled by tradition and context. But there are whole new "next level" practices that we can be guided to by this plant. There could be no limits once we bust thru anchoring paradigms. People are focused on the human factors, and we dont give this plant the credit deserves. I have plant consciousness access thru it and it has human consciousness access thru me. And we are a team, like Batman and Robin, awakening folks. It never gives me challenging clients, it never wigs out people or gives me a handful of problems. Because everybody is nurtured commensurate with how I have nurtured the vine. Simples. Ha, Im being interviewed under the vine for a documentary this week, so yeah, I have been collecting my thoughts to be as articulate as possible. Thanks for the feedback, means Im on the right track to explain non-traditional use and next level value adding.
  5. 10 likes
    Hi All, in my life I have been chasing entity contact through the use of psychopharmacologicals and plants. I would like to start this thread to give other people the opportunity to talk about their experiences. They can range from machine-elves, aliens, animal spirits to full-blown entity contact like seeing the village of the faerie-folk or facing a 10-foot Gollum. (These last 2 happened to me). I am thinking of establishing a church that collated these experiences called The Church of the Dangerous Gods. Dangerous, because high dose psychedelics are often used. I would also like to know of anything you have found that increases the meetings of entities. In my investigations, I found that alcohol decreased the likelihood, that concomitant use of MXE/Ketamine in use with indolic psychedelics increased the likelihood, and that a2 milk had a very strange effect on the action of psychaedelics. My incomplete essay has a list so far of entities I have encountered along with an incomplete draft of the essay, which ultimately will to make sense of these entities. My intricate vision of faerie-world with leprechauns hopping all around me, or talking to a 10 foot ectoplasmic Gollum I find hard to believe are produced entirely by the human brain, as if there were some sort of template in there. Church of the Dangerous Gods subforum can be found on my forum http://synthetictelepathy.freeforums.net/
  6. 9 likes
    I linked the talk in the YouTube thread but around 1hr 08mins he says that he has friends who have FDA licenses for psilocybin research and production. The same friends say that psilocybin will soon be made Schedule 2, which is a big deal, especially in the US. Don't want to get too excited but sheeit, sounds legit. He also outlines a nootropic formula that he has a patent for: 0.1mg+ psilocybin mush 100 - 200mg lions mane 150mg niacin/nicotinic acid, neurogenesis For creativity, cognition, PTSD, etc. and vision/auditory specific neurogenesis.
  7. 8 likes

    From the album Cactus Fence

    Cacti make great fences. post pics here of cactus that you think would make a good fence able to keep livestock and even dogs contained. Self propagating, self repairing, what more could you want from a fence? Edible, Scented, medicinal, attractive, bird feeding.
  8. 8 likes
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-13282-7 "Psilocybin with psychological support is showing promise as a treatment model in psychiatry but its therapeutic mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after treatment with psilocybin (serotonin agonist) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Quality pre and post treatment fMRI data were collected from 16 of 19 patients. Decreased depressive symptoms were observed in all 19 patients at 1-week post-treatment and 47% met criteria for response at 5 weeks. Whole-brain analyses revealed post-treatment decreases in CBF in the temporal cortex, including the amygdala. Decreased amygdala CBF correlated with reduced depressive symptoms. Focusing on a priori selected circuitry for RSFC analyses, increased RSFC was observed within the default-mode network (DMN) post-treatment. Increased ventromedial prefrontal cortex-bilateral inferior lateral parietal cortex RSFC was predictive of treatment response at 5-weeks, as was decreased parahippocampal-prefrontal cortex RSFC. These data fill an important knowledge gap regarding the post-treatment brain effects of psilocybin, and are the first in depressed patients. The post-treatment brain changes are different to previously observed acute effects of psilocybin and other ‘psychedelics’ yet were related to clinical outcomes. A ‘reset’ therapeutic mechanism is proposed. Introduction Psilocybin is the prodrug of psilocin (4-OH-dimethyltryptamine), a non-selective serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonist and classic ‘psychedelic’ drug1. Both compounds occur naturally in the ‘psilocybe’ genus of mushrooms, and are structurally related to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-OH-tryptamine, 5-HT). Psilocybin has an ancient and more recent history of medicinal-use. Administered in a supportive environment, with preparatory and integrative psychological care, it is used to facilitate emotional breakthrough and renewed perspective2. Accumulating evidence suggests that psilocybin with accompanying psychological support can be used safely to treat a range of psychiatric conditions1, including: end-of-life anxiety and depression3,4,5, alcohol and tobacco addiction6,7, obsessive compulsive disorder8, and most recently from our group, treatment-resistant major depression9. Findings from healthy volunteer studies10 and trials with other psychedelics11,12,13 supplement those from clinical studies showing that these drugs can have a rapid and lasting positive impact on mental health, often after just one or two doses. Such outcomes raise a number of important questions, including: what brain mechanisms mediate these effects? Most human functional neuroimaging studies of psychedelics have focused on their acute effects with the aim of elucidating the neural correlates of the ‘psychedelic state’14,15. Consistent with findings from animal research16, psychedelics appear to dysregulate cortical activity14,17, producing an ‘entropic’ brain state18, characterised by compromised modular but enhanced global connectivity - referred to previously as network ‘disintegration’ and ‘desegregation’14. These effects have been found to correlate with important aspects of the ‘psychedelic experience’, including ‘ego-dissolution’14,17,19, and were predictive of post-acute changes in the personality domain ‘openness’20. To our knowledge, only one other very recent study has investigated >12 hour post-acute effects of psychedelics on human brain function (although see12 and now21), and few have looked at anatomical changes possibly related to psychedelic use22,23. The present study focused on changes in brain function before versus after psilocybin in patients with treatment-resistant depression who received two doses of the drug (10 mg followed by 25 mg, one-week apart) as part of an open-label clinical trial. Arterial spin labelling (ASL) and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), were used to measure changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity before (baseline) and one-day after treatment with psilocybin (i.e. one day after the 25 mg dose). It has been suggested that the days subsequent to a psychedelic experience constitute a distinct phase, referred to as the ‘after-glow’, that is characterised by mood improvements and stress relief24. The rationale for scanning one-day post-treatment was to capture brain changes related to this so-called after-glow that might correlate with current mood improvements and/or longer-term prognoses. We predicted that resting-state CBF and FC would be altered post treatment and correlate with immediate and longer-term clinical improvements. With regards to ‘longer-term’ clinical outcomes, we chose to focus on a 5-week post-treatment endpoint due to a virtual 50:50 split between responders and non-responders at this time-point (QIDS-SR16) and that none of the patients went on to additional (and thus, confounding) treatments within this time frame. A select number of regions of interest were chosen a priori for CBF and RSFC analyses due to previous work implicating their involvement in depression and its treatment, e.g25,26,27. Results Nineteen patients with diagnoses of treatment resistant major depression completed pre-treatment and one-day post-treatment fMRI scanning. Excessive movement or other artefact meant that three patients were removed from the ASL analyses and four from the RSFC (SI Appendix), leaving sample sizes of 16 (mean age = 42.8 ± 10.1 y, 4 females) and 15 (mean age = 42.8 ± 10.5 y, 4 females) for the ASL and BOLD analyses, respectively. Treatment with psilocybin produced rapid and sustained antidepressant effects. For the patients included in the ASL analysis (minus one patient whose scan 1 rating was not collected), the mean depression score (QIDS-SR16) for the week prior to the pre-treatment scan was 16.9 ± 5.1, and for the day of the post-treatment scan, it was 8.8 ± 6.2 (change = −8.1 ± 6, t = −5.2, p < 0.001). The mean QIDS-SR16 score at baseline (screening) was 18.9 ± 3, and for 5-weeks post-treatment, it was 10.9 ± 4.8 (change = −8 ± 5.1, t = −6.3, p < 0.001). Mean change values for those included in the BOLD analyses were −7.3 ± 5.3 (change from scan 1 to scan 2) and −8.2 ± 5.2 (change from baseline to 5 weeks post-treatment). Both contrasts were highly significant (t = −5.2 and −6.2, p < 0.001). Six of the 15 (BOLD) and 16 (ASL) patients met criteria for treatment response (≤50% reductions in QIDS-SR16 score) at 5 weeks. Of the full 19 patients, all showed some decrease in depressive symptoms at 1 week, with 12 meeting criteria for response (change = −10.2 ± 5.3, t = −6.4, p < 0.001). All but one patient showed some decrease in QIDS-SR16 score at week 5 (with one showing no change) and 47% met criteria for response (change = −9.2 ± 5.6, t = −6.7, p < 0.001). Whole-brain CBF was calculated pre and post treatment and contrasted (Fig. 1). Only decreases in CBF were observed post treatment (vs pre), and these reached statistical significance in the left Heschl’s gyrus, left precentral gyrus, left planum temporale, left superior temporal gyrus, left amygdala, right supramarginal gyrus and right parietal operculum (Table S1). Based on previous findings of increased amygdala blood flow and metabolism in depression25, reductions in amygdala CBF were compared with the reductions in depressive symptoms between scan 1 and 2 (i.e. decreased depressed mood at the time of scanning), and a significant relationship was found (r = 0.59; p = 0.01). After splitting the sample into responders and non-responders at 5-weeks post-treatment, and then comparing CBF changes in a t-test, no significant difference was found (t = 0.11; p = 0.46). Figure 1 Whole-brain cerebral blood flow maps for baseline versus one-day post-treatment, plus the difference map (cluster-corrected, p < 0.05, n = 16). Correlation chart shows post-Treatment changes in bilateral amygdala CBF versus changes in depressive symptoms (r = 0.59, p = 0.01). One patient failed to completed the scan 2 QIDS-SR16 rating, reducing the sample size to n = 15 for the correlation analysis. In all of the images, the left of the brain is shown on the left. Full size image Next, seed-based RSFC analyses were performed using the BOLD data. Based on previous data implicating their involvement in the pathophysiology of depression and response to treatments25,26,27, four regions of interest (ROIs) were chosen: 1) the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), 2) the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), 3) the bilateral amygdala, and 4) the bilateral parahippocampus (PH) (Figs 2–4 and SI Appendix, Table S1). Figure 2 Top two rows = sgACC (purple) RSFC before and after psilocybin treatment (hot colours = regions of significantly positive coupling). Bottom row reveals regions where there was a significant increase in sgACC RSFC post-treatment (hot colours). All maps are cluster-corrected, p < 0.05, Z > 2.3. Full size image Figure 3 Top two rows = vmPFC (purple) RSFC before and after psilocybin treatment (hot colours = regions of significantly positive coupling). Bottom row reveals regions where there was a significant increase in vmPFC RSFC post-treatment (hot colours). All maps are cluster-corrected, p < 0.05, Z > 2.3. Increased coupling between the vmPFC and the displayed regions (bottom row) was predictive of clinical response at 5-weeks post-treatment. Chart shows mean values and positive standard errors. Full size image Figure 4 Top two rows = Bilateral PH (purple) RSFC before and after psilocybin treatment (hot colours = regions of significantly positive coupling). Bottom row reveals regions where there was a significant decrease in PH RSFC post-treatment (cold colours). All maps are cluster-corrected, p < 0.05, Z > 2.3. Decreased coupling between the PH and the displayed regions (bottom row) was predictive of clinical response at 5-weeks post-treatment (t = −1.9, p = 0.04). Chart shows mean values and negative standard errors. Full size image Increased sgACC RSFC was observed with the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneous (PCC) post-treatment (Fig. 2) but this effect did not correlate with reductions in depressive symptoms between scan 1 and 2 (r = −0.2; p = 0.24) and nor did it predict treatment response at 5 weeks (t = −1.3; p = 0.11). Increased vmPFC RSFC was observed with the bilateral inferior-lateral parietal cortex (ilPC) post-treatment. This effect did not correlate with reductions in depressive symptoms between scan 1 and 2 (r = −0.26; p = 0.17) but did predict treatment response at 5 weeks, with responders showing significantly greater vmPFC-ilPC RSFC increases than non-responders (t = 2.1; p = 0.03). Decreased PH RSFC was observed with a PFC cluster incorporating the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex. This effect did not correlate with reductions in depressive symptoms between scan 1 and 2 (r = 0.08; p = 0.38) but did relate to treatment response at 5 weeks, with responders showing significantly greater PH-PFC RSFC decreases than non-responders (t = −1.9, p = 0.04). Amygdala RSFC was not significantly altered post treatment. Analyses of within network RSFC using 12 previously identified canonical RSNs14 revealed increased default-mode network (DMN) (t = 2.7, p = 0.018), dorsal attention network (DAN) (t = 2.2, p = 0.042), and posterior opercular network (POP) (t = 2.7, p = 0.016) RSFC post-treatment; however, these changes failed to survive Bonferonni correction for multiple comparisons (revised α = 0.05/11 = 0.0042) and did not correlate with depression outcomes, e.g. the relationship between change in DMN RSFC and reduced QIDS-SR16 scores between scan 1 and 2 were non-significant (r = 0.25; p = 0.18) and neither were changes in DMN RSFC predictive of outcomes at 5 weeks (t = 0.58; p = 0.28). Analyses of between network RSFC using the same 12 RSNs, revealed decreased RSFC between the DMN and right frontoparietal network (rFP) (t = −3.6, p = 0.0031) and increased RSFC between the sensorimotor network (SM) and rFP (t = 2.2, p = 0.045) (Fig. 5); however, these effects did not survive FDR correction for multiple comparisons and did not relate to reduced QID-16 scores between scan 1 and 2, nor response at 5 weeks. Figure 5 Differences in between-RSN RSFC or RSN ‘segregation’ before and after therapy. Each square in the matrix represents the strength of functional connectivity (positive = red, negative = blue) between a pair of different RSNs (beta values). The matrix on the far right displays the between-condition differences in covariance (t values). The RSNs are: 1) medial visual network, 2) lateral visual network, 3) occipital pole network, 4) auditory network, 5) sensorimotor network, 6) DMN, 7) parietal cortex network, 8) the dorsal attention network, 9) the salience network, 10) posterior opercular network, 11) left frontoparietal network, 12) right frontoparietal network. White asterisks represent significant differences (P < 0.05, non-corrected). Both of the significant differences did not survive FDR correction for multiple comparisons. Full size image Lastly, based on indications from previous work4,5,10 we explored the possibility that the quality of the acute ‘psychedelic’ experience may have mediated the post-acute brain changes. We focused on a rating scale factor related to ‘peak’ or ‘mystical’ experience and used scores for the high-dose psilocybin session as a covariate in a PH RSFC analysis. The PH was specifically chosen due to previous work implicating its involvement in related states14. Results revealed that patients scoring highest on ‘peak’ or ‘mystical’ experience had the greatest decreases in PH RSFC in limbic (e.g. bilateral amygdala) and DMN-related cortical regions (e.g. the PCC). See the supplementary file for the relevant maps and discussion. Discussion The present study goes some way to addressing an important knowledge gap concerning the post-acute brain effects of serotonergic psychedelics. Its findings suggest that changes in brain activity observed just one-day after a high dose psychedelic experience are very different to those found during the acute psychedelic state. Specifically, whereas the acute psychedelic state in healthy volunteers is characterised by modular disintegration14,15,28 and global integration14,19,29, there are trends towards modular (re)integration and minimal effects on global integration/segregation post psilocybin for depression. Relating the blood flow findings to what has been seen previously in the acute psychedelic state is somewhat more complicated due to inconsistencies in this literature – likely due to analysis approaches and interpretation14,15,30: Here we saw decreased CBF bilaterally in the temporal lobes, including the left amygdala one-day post treatment. Decreased absolute CBF in subcortical and high-level association cortices have been previously reported with intravenous (I.V.)15 and now oral psilocybin30 but increased CBF and metabolism have also been reported with I.V. LSD14, oral psilocybin31, and oral ayahuasca32. Much recent research has focused on the involvement of the default-mode network in psychiatric disorders33, and particularly depression34,35. We previously observed decreased DMN functional integrity under psilocybin15 and LSD14, and others have with ayahuasca28. Here however, increased DMN integrity was observed one-day post treatment with psilocybin, both via seed (i.e. vmPFC and sgACC) and network-based approaches. Previous work has suggested that increased DMN integrity may be a marker of depressed mood and specifically, depressive rumination34,36. On this basis, increased DMN integrity post psilocybin may be surprising. The post-treatment increases in within-DMN RSFC and sgACC-PCC RSFC did not relate to symptom improvements but vmPFC-ilPC RSFC did (see Fig. 3). This apparent divergence from previous findings36,37 is intriguing, and deserves further discussion (below). It should be noted that findings of elevated within-DMN RSFC in depression are not entirely consistent in the literature38,39,40,41. For example, using a DMN-focused analysis, precuneus-DMN RSFC39 was found to be lower in patients than in healthy controls, and normalised after treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) - and only in responders39 – consistent with the present findings. Lower precuneus-DMN RSFC in depression was also seen in a separate study and the degree of this abnormality correlated with autobiographical memory deficits40. In another study, lower PCC-dmPFC and PCC-ilPC RSFC were seen in first-episode depressed patients relative to healthy controls41. In the present study, we saw increased within-DMN RSFC post treatment with psilocybin, and increased vmPFC-bilateral ilPC RSFC was predictive of treatment response at 5 weeks (Fig. 3). These findings suggest a commonality in the antidepressant action of ECT and psilocybin39 in which DMN integrity is decreased acutely (at least by the latter14,15,28) and increased (or normalised) post-acutely, accompanied by improvements in mood. This process might be likened to a ‘reset’ mechanism in which acute modular disintegration (e.g. in the DMN) enables a subsequent re-integration and resumption of normal functioning. Recent meta-analyses of studies of resting-state CBF in depression have yielded relatively mixed results34,42, although findings of increased thalamic34,42 and sgACC metabolism are relatively consistent34. Here, we did not find any post-treatment changes in thalamic or sgACC CBF with psilocybin, either in whole-brain or ROI-based analyses. We did observe decreased CBF bilaterally in the temporal cortex however, including the left medial temporal lobe and specifically, the left amygdala. Given previous findings of elevated resting-state amygdala CBF and metabolism in mood disorders25,43,44, the reduction in amygdala CBF observed here, and its relation to symptom severity, could be viewed as a possible remediation effect. Moreover, generalised decreases in CBF are (again) consistent with what has been previously reported with ECT45, i.e. most studies have documented an increase in CBF in the acute ‘ictal’ state, including in the amygdala45; however, the post-ictal period is characterised by decreased CBF, and often in those regions that were most perfused during seizure45. Acutely increased CBF has previously been reported with ayahuasca32 and LSD15 and increased glucose metabolism has been observed in the acute state with oral31 but not I.V. psilocybin15. Thus, a post-acute reversal of acute increases in CBF could be seen as consistent with the post-treatment ‘reset’ mechanism proposed above – although recent work has laid into question whether oral psilocybin does indeed cause increases in brain absolute CBF30. It would be challenging (but not impossible) to carry out acute and post-acute imaging in future trials of psilocybin for depression, and this may be necessary if the ‘reset’ model is to be properly tested. In such a study, we would advise focusing on BOLD RSFC (and perhaps simultaneous EEG-related measures) rather than CBF, due to RSFC and EEG offering more direct and reliable indices of brain activity and function than more difficult to interpret measures such as CBF. The inclusion of a healthy control group, exposed to a consistent treatment procedure, would further strengthen the design of such a study, as would the inclusion of a placebo and/or active comparator arm. The present study’s other major positive finding was a decrease in RSFC between the bilateral parahippocampus and the PFC, an effect that (like increased vmPFC-ilPC RSFC) was predictive of treatment response at 5 weeks. Curiously, a post-hoc exploratory analysis suggested that acute ‘peak’ or ‘mystical-type’ experiences under psilocybin may mediate the post-acute changes in parahippocampal RSFC (including decreased PH-PCC RSFC). Focusing on parahippocampal-PFC RSFC, this has generally been found to be elevated in depression46, and consistently so across the duration of a resting-state scan47. Prefrontal-limbic circuitry has been linked with top-down suppression of affective responsiveness48and lower resting-state amygdala-vmPFC RSFC in combination with amygdala hyperfusion was found to relate to state-anxiety in healthy individuals43, corroborating separate findings49. Seven days of citalopram has been found to reduce amygdala-vmPFC50 and dorso-medial PFC-left hippocampal RSFC51 in healthy volunteers, somewhat consistent with the present findings. In conclusion, here we document for the first time, changes in resting-state brain blood flow and functional connectivity post-treatment with psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. Decreased blood flow was found to correlate (in the amygdala) with reductions in depressive mood. Increased within-DMN RSFC was observed post-treatment, using both seed and network-based analyses, and specific increases in RSFC between the vmPFC and bilateral ilPC nodes of the DMN were greatest in individuals who maintained treatment-response at 5 weeks. Finally, decreased PH-PFC RSFC was observed post-treatment and this was also predictive of treatment-response at 5 weeks. An exploratory post-hoc analysis revealed that acute ‘peak’ or ‘mystical’ experience during the high-dose psilocybin session was predictive of these changes in PH RSFC. This study is limited by its small sample size and absence of a control condition. Moreover, correction for multiple testing was applied to the full RSN but not the specific (hypothesis-based) ROI analyses. Future research with more rigorous controls should serve to challenge and develop the present study’s findings and inferences. Assessing the relative contributions of, and potential interactions between, the different treatment factors (e.g. the drug and the accompanying psychological support) may be a particularly informative next step. Method This study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service (NRES) committee London – West London and was conducted in accordance with the revised declaration of Helsinki (2000), the International Committee on Harmonisation Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines and National Health Service (NHS) Research Governance Framework. Imperial College London sponsored the research which was conducted under a Home Office license for research with schedule 1 drugs. The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) approved the study. All patients gave written informed consent, consistent with GCP. Imaging vs clinical outcomes To explore relationships between significant imaging outcomes and the main clinical outcomes, we chose to focus on changes in depressive symptoms from: 1) pre-Treatment to scan 2 (i.e. one-day post-treatment), and 2) pre-Treatment to 5 weeks post-Treatment. The primary clinical outcome measure, the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS-SR16) was chosen for this purpose. Relationships between imaging outcomes and contemporaneous decreases in depressive symptoms were calculated using a standard Pearson’s r, and relationships with the longer-term (i.e. at 5 weeks post-treatment) changes in depressive symptoms were calculated by splitting the sample into responders (>50% reduction in QIDS-SR16 scores) and non-responders at this time-point, and then performing a one-tailed t-test on the relevant imaging outcomes (one-tailed as directionality was unequivocally implied by the direction of the significant imaging outcome). We used a revised version of the QIDS-SR16 for 24-hour measurement for the post-treatment scan in order to get a contemporaneous, state-related index of depressive symptoms at this time-point. Anatomical Scans Imaging was performed on a 3 T Siemens Tim Trio using a 12-channel head coil at Imanova, London, UK. Anatomical images were acquired using the ADNI-GO (Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, Grand Opportunity52) recommended MPRAGE parameters (1 mm isotropic voxels, TR = 2300 ms, TE = 2.98 ms, 160 sagittal slices, 256 × 256 in-plane FOV, flip angle = 9 degrees, bandwidth = 240 Hz/pixel, GRAPPA acceleration = 2). BOLD fMRI Resting State Acquisition T2*-weighted echo-planar images (EPI) were acquired for the functional scan using 3 mm isotropic voxels, TR = 2000 ms, TE = 31 ms, 36 axial slices, 192 mm in-plane FOV, flip angle = 80 degree, bandwidth = 2298 Hz/pixel, GRAPPA acceleration = 2, number of volumes = 240, 8 min. BOLD Pre-processing Four different but complementary imaging software packages were used to analyse the fMRI data. Specifically, FMRIB Software Library (FSL)53, AFNI54, Freesurfer55 and Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTS)56 were used. Fifteen subjects were used for this analysis: one subject was discarded from the analysis due to an injury in parietal cortex and three subjects were discarded due to high levels of head movement. Principally, motion was measured using frame-wise displacement (FD)57. The criterion for exclusion was subjects with >20% scrubbed volumes with a scrubbing threshold of FD = 0.5. For the 15 subjects that were used in the analysis, there was no significant difference in the mean FD (meanFDbefore = 0.179 ± 0.088, meanFDafter = 0.158 ± 0.084, p = 0.23). The mean percentage of scrubbed volumes for before and after treatment was 4.6 ± 5% and 3.5 ± 5.2%, respectively (p = 0.56). The maximum of scrubbed volumes for before and after treatment was 17.3% and 17.7%, respectively. The following pre-processing stages were performed: 1) removal of the first three volumes; 2) de-spiking (3dDespike, AFNI); 3) slice time correction (3dTshift, AFNI); 4) motion correction (3dvolreg, AFNI) by registering each volume to the volume most similar, in the least squares sense, to all others (in-house code); 5) brain extraction (BET, FSL); 6) rigid body registration to anatomical scans (BBR, FSL); 7) non-linear registration to 2 mm MNI brain (Symmetric Normalization (SyN), ANTS); 8) scrubbing58 - using an FD threshold of 0.5, scrubbed volumes were replaced with the mean of the surrounding volumes. 9) spatial smoothing (FWHM) of 6 mm (3dBlurInMask, AFNI); 10) band-pass filtering between 0.01 to 0.08 Hz (3dFourier, AFNI); 11) linear and quadratic de-trending (3dDetrend, AFNI); 12) regressing out 9 nuisance regressors (all nuisance regressors were band-pass filtered with the same band-pass filter as above): out of these, 6 were motion-related (3 translations, 3 rotations) and 3 were anatomically-related (not smoothed). Specifically, the anatomical nuisance regressors were: 1) ventricles (Freesurfer, eroded in 2 mm space), 2) draining veins (DV) (FSL’s CSF minus Freesurfer’s Ventricles, eroded in 1 mm space) and 3) local white matter (WM) (FSL’s WM minus Freesurfer’s subcortical grey matter (GM) structures, eroded in 2 mm space). Regarding local WM regression, AFNI’s 3dLocalstat was used to calculate the mean local WM time-series for each voxel, using a 25 mm radius sphere centred on each voxel59. Seed-based RSFC Based on prior hypotheses, 4 seeds were chosen for these analyses: 1) the bilateral PH, vmPFC, sgACC and bilateral amygdala. The PH seed was constructed by combining the anterior and posterior parahippocampal gyrus from the Harvard-Oxford probabilistic atlas, which was then thresholded at 50%. The vmPFC seed was the same as one previously used by our team in analyses of the acute effects of LSD60, psilocybin61 and MDMA62. The sgACC seed was a 5 mm sphere centred at ±2 28 -5 (MNI_152 coordinates) based on63. Bilateral amygdala seed was based on Harvard-Oxford probabilistic atlas, threshold at 50%. Mean time-series were derived for these seeds for each RS scan. RSFC analyses were performed using FSL’s FEAT for each subject. Pre-whitening (FILM) was applied. A higher level analysis was performed to compare pre-treatment and post-treatment conditions using a mixed-effects GLM (FLAME 1 + 2), cluster corrected (z > 2.3, p < 0.05). MRIcron was used to display the results. Resting State Networks (RSN) RSNs were derived using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) performed on data acquired separately as part of the Human Connectome Project (HCP)64. This procedure is identical to one used previously with LSD60. Briefly, 20 independent components (ICs) were derived, of which the same 12 functionally meaningful RSNs were identified, namely: medial visual network (VisM), lateral visual network (VisL), occipital pole network (VisO), auditory network (AUD), sensorimotor network (SM), default-mode network (DMN), parietal cortex network (PAR), dorsal attention network (DAN), salience network (SAL), posterior opercular network (POP), left fronto-parietal network (lFP) and right fronto-parietal network (rFP). Integrity (within-RSN RSFC) Network integrity was calculated for each RSN for both pre-treatment and post-treatment. All 20 HCP ICA components were entered into FSL’s dual regression analysis65. The first step of the dual regression used the components as regressors applied to the 4D BOLD datasets for each subject, resulting in a matrix of time-series for each ICA. The second step involved regressing these time-series into the same 4D scan data to get a subject-specific set of spatial maps (parameter estimate (PE) images). For each subject and for each condition, within each of the 12 RSNs of interest (threshold = 3), the mean PE across voxels was calculated. This mean PE represents the integrity value. Subsequently, paired t-tests were used to calculate the difference in integrity between conditions for each RSN (Bonferroni corrected for 11 RSNs, with no correction for DMN as we had a prior hypothesis). Segregation (between-RSN RSFC) Between-RSN RSFC was calculated in a similar manner to previous analyses involving acute LSD60 and psilocybin66. Specifically, a 12 × 12 matrix was constructed representing RSFC between different RSN pairs. For each subject and for each condition, the time-series for the relevant pair of RSNs, was entered into a GLM, resulting in a PE value representing the strength of functional connectivity between them. GLM was used rather than correlation coefficients because differences between Pearson’s correlations could be a result of either signal or noise differences; therefore, it is preferable to perform regression and look for pre-treatment and post-treatment differences on the PE67. The GLM was estimated twice: 1) each RSN as a dependant variable in one model, and 2) each RSN as an independent variable in the second model. These two PE values were then averaged together, to generate a symmetric 12 × 12 matrix (Fig. 4b). Three 12 × 12 matrices were created as follows: 1) the group mean PE values for pre-Treatment treatment, 2) the group mean PE values for post-Treatment treatment, and 3) paired t-test to compare the PE values for the two conditions, pre-Treatment and post-Treatment treatment (two-tailed, 5000 permutations). Additional information Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. 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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8, https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00204 (2014)."
  9. 8 likes
    I've done something over 30 ceremonies in Peru over the years all with Maestros and Maestras. That being said I have often journeyed all the rest of the night and into the morning with plenty of deep solo time. The healers are guides. They can take you deeper, much deeper. They open doors we cant even find the handle to. it is a working space they have spent 7 years minimum training to navigate in. Shaking is often a blissful release. Screaming isn't as common as one might think but can be part of someone's process. Discomfort and an aya ceremony are part and parcel with eachother. If you don't find your edge whats the point? That is where growth happens. Actually during icaros is when i have flowered most deeply, every. single. time. This was when i felt myself rewoven. The icaros are the plants guiding the medicine through the interplanar conduit of the shaman and healing us on a physical, emotional, energetic and spiritual level. The plants come, other plants. They reach in and do stuff that beggars comprehension. They clean and open us, merge with us with incredible compassion. This is when I was taught most just how to remain present. When I trusted the guidance and found samadhi, shamatha, vipassana and tumbling waves of insights that followed. These states were most powerfully accessed and developed with help. Without the shaman often the medicine will largely lay dormant. It is still very psychedelic but with a shaman the dose can mean absolutely nothing with how intense things can get. As for inntention. We are connected to it all of of course we know that but inside the personal work is the ripening of the fruit of insight. Most people, even those who think they do not have deep work to do on themselves and wish to connect with the universe, often end up finding that personal work. i now go back to deepen my connection and unnderstanding, and every time she takes me back into my "self". Insights come when we are purified of the delusion. Mother Aya is helping clear what we carry that prevents us from being able to experience vipassana/insight and thus wisdom in daily life. There should be no reasonn we are not enliightened on the spot if we have no work to do to understand our selves. Sitting with a good Maestro/Maestra will completely change your perspective of psychedelic medicines forever. They see and mother aya sees and the plant spirits see and like a symphony they guide you like you are simply not capable to do without going and dedicating a significant portion of your lifetime to learning the shaman's role. i don;t know if that answered your questions. Let me know if you'd like clarification.
  10. 7 likes
    Considering selling this beauty not sure what they're worth so I'm open to offers, really don't want to sell it but my child's needs come first so please throw me reasonable offers, I can only say no right ? Cheers
  11. 7 likes
    A really cool paper, this is like an under-explored thing. Anyone here into fermented food and tried anything exotic? Come on people, get exotically fermenting up stuff.... I've done cacao fermentation (liked that), tried turmeric fermentation (didn't do this large scale to get a healing amount). Want to ferment things like green tea, ginseng and ashwagandha (more active compounds are formed fermenting these) Keen one day to ferment more healing food with some select quality probiotic strains. Fermented up an Aptenia brew (alcoholic) to get an apple tasting refreshing beverage but I was worried oxalates were being liberated rather than degraded so didn't pursue. Past the alcohol days anyway. Done plenty of Aptenia fermentations, some with added yeast, little bit of Sceletium. Sometimes the Aptenia fermented really well, other times it fouled. Fruits and vegetables, as a source of nutritional compounds and phytochemicals: Changes in bioactive compounds during lactic fermentation. Fermentation belongs to some of the most ancient food processes in human history. Microorganisms naturally present on the substrate, develop their fermentative activity. This leads to the transformation of the initial material and to modification of biochemical composition. Fermentation causes considerable changes that affect the organoleptic properties (taste, texture and in a lesser extend color), the nutritional value and the microbial safety of food. Therefore, human interest in fermentation lays on the four potential advantages for food: (1) improved shelf life and safety, (2) improved nutrition health properties, (3) organoleptic modification and (4) production of active principles of interest The increase of nutrient density by lactic fermentation is mostly due to a decrease of sugar content. Thanks to the activity of various enzymes, fermentation of fruits and vegetables tends to improve bio-accessibility and/or bioavailability of various type of compounds such as proteins, amino-acids, vitamins and antioxidants compounds (such as polyphenols). However, a common conclusion for several works is that the selection of starter can contribute to maintain or to increase antioxidant activity when compared to spontaneous fermentation. Changes in antioxidant activity point out that modifications of composition occur over fermentation. One of the main mechanism that could explain antioxidant activity variation is the release of bioactive compounds from conjugated phytochemicals. Metabolism of phenolic compounds by LAB has been reviewed by Rodriguez et al (Rodriguez et al., 2009). Interestingly, among LAB, Lb. plantarum is of great interest since it possesses enzymes leading to the production of high-added value compounds, such as powerful antioxidants As a whole, molecular nature of phenolic compound can be modified through fermentation leading to new derived compounds with biological activities potential including modification of microbiota populations and gut immunoglobulin levels. In addition, polyphenols bioavailability can be positively influenced by glucosidase, over fermentation, thereby increasing in situ radical scavenging potential as well as putative stimulation of natural antioxidant body defenses http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.031 Fermented plant medicines: Something as simple as fermented ginger has improved anti-inflammatory properties. Not sure how this applies to turmeric... Sceletium, even Aptenia: "...the process of bruising and fermentation alters the alkaloid profile, which we will deal with in some detail below. All that said, total alkaloid levels can range between 0.3% and 2.3% of dry weight. The average for cultivated material is generally around 0.8% total alkaloids, though there are certain high-yield stains that have been developed that can average double that. the fermentation of Kanna accomplishes the following primary outcomes: Lowers oxalic acid Lowers 4′-O-demethylmesembrenol Significantly converts mesembrine to mesembrenone and ∆7-mesembrenone May increase total alkaloid levels (by a very small measure)" https://sceletium.com/chemistry-pharmacology/ Ashwagandha: Ashwagandharishtha style preparations can be made. Ashwagandharishtha is a liquid polyherbal formulation traditionally prepared by fermentation process using the flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa. It contains roots of Withania somnifera as a major crude drug. Alcohol generated during the fermentation causes the extraction of water insoluble phytoconstituents. Yeasts present on the flowers are responsible for this fermentation. https://ayurmedinfo.com/2011/06/27/ashwagandharishta-uses-ingredients-dose-and-side-effects/ Lemon Balm (and other base plants) for Kombucha: The use of lemon balm for kombucha fermentation can yield a beverage with improved functional characteristics compared to the traditional kombucha prepared from black tea. Sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the traditional and almost only recommended medium for preparing kombucha because of high levels of nitrogen sources (like purine derivatives, caffeine and theophylline) which are necessary for growth and reproduction of SCOBY cells. Although it has been noticed that some herbal teas cannot be used as alternative nitrogen sources due to the lack of purine derivatives (12), sweetened echinacea (Echinacea purpurea L.) and winter savory (Satureja montana L.) have been demonstrated as suitable tea alternatives, yielding a fermentation product in a shorter time and comparable to the traditional beverage with regard to the basic chemical and microbiological characteristics. Also, lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) can be successfully used as nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. This aromatic herb is cultivated throughout the world because of its application in several fields. In medicine it is used for the treatment of headaches, gastrointestinal disorders, nervousness, anemia, bronchitis, high blood pressure, rheumatism, and enhancing memory. Cacao: Differences in microbial activities result in different cacao flavour characteristics. Catechins and epicatechins were present in large amount in cacao and quite unstable during fermentation. While it's possible to increase interesting alkaloid concentrations and form polyphenol breakdown products which are active, there are several pathways, polyphenols also undergo enzymatic oxidation by polyphenol oxidase and condensate in high molecular weight tannins. That's where if you want the benefits of epicatechin (cognitive, cardiovascular etc healing), you're best without a fermented product. As raw as possible. For a spiritual effect, the cacao fermentation seems to add something.The traditional cacao fermentations tend to rely on more than yeast, the presence of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria seems to be optimal. Maybe a kombucha is good, I didn't find my chocolate kombucha attempts brought out deeper chocolate flavour though but that was a one off trial. There are brewing cultures like prepared lambic culture that contains the Saccharomyces culture along with the lactic acid and Brettanomyces cultures. (Wyeast 3278). Don't know if they'd be interesting? Green tea: Lactic acid bacteria allow conversion of EGCG, EGC, and EC → GCG and GC in green tea Green tea antioxidant power when treated increased 55% compared to untreated tea. Yerba mate antioxidant power increased by 43% compared to untreated tea. You get interesting polyphenol profiles. Despite the benefits of polyphenols, many clinical studies and animal models have shown that these compounds, especially the polymers, esters, and glycosides, are abundant, but are not always absorbed by oral administration. The functional effect of the compound depends not only on the amount ingested, but on its bioavailability. Therefore, the enzymatic hydrolysis of polyphenols from food is a subject worth investigating. There are tannases etc. Ginseng: Having specific β-glucosidase activity can be used to enhance the health benefits of Panax ginseng in either fermented foods or bioconversion processes. Bifidobacterium strains to cause production of ginsenoside aglycones. It also bioconverts a wide variety of polyphenols. Ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Re continuously decreased, whereas ginsenosides Rd, Rg1, and Rg2 increased after 1-2 d of fermentation. [ref] Others: When common dietary polyphenols are subjected to fermentation, the newly formed biotransformation phytochemicals are more capable of causing a beneficial shift in microbial growth stimulation. New polyphenols are also created. This is sometimes beneficial, other times not - with cacao, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, respectively was reduced by fermentation; Epicatechin is degraded to less anti-oxidant substances. It can however allow for hydrolysis of things like initial glucosides and aglycons. Fermented grape pomace yields more total antioxidants and antioxidant activity than its unfermented counterpart. Anthocyanins often form gallic acid and protocatechuic acid Remarkably, even fermented fish oil, an agent with well-documented anti-inflammatory and mood-support properties, has been shown to provide an enhanced anti-inflammatory activity versus its unfermented counterpart. Yes, you can beneficially ferment herbal products. Unfortunately I can't find much on how alkaloids and constituents or other actives change, other than in sceletium, during fermentation. Researchers have examined the in vivo properties of an herbal blend typically used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, comparing its effects in the unfermented and fermented form. Blood LPS levels were significantly lower when treated with the fermented blend, as was C-reactive protein, a primary marker of systemic inflammation. In separate work involving a singular traditional food or medicinal agent, the anti-inflammatory botanical Sophora flavescens, researchers, again using LPS as the inducing agent, found a more pronounced anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity with the fermented form Magnolia flower as a source of polyphenols on fermentation increased the total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, and antioxidative and anticancer activities. Isoflavones ferment well, so do often other flavonoids. For more fermented roots, fruits, veggies and plant medicines, see here
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    With you 100% on that Obtuse. I can't quite decide if his self-promoting is causing others to misreport his work and/ or mis-attribute the work of others to him personally. Or worse, if he does the mis-attribution himself. That issue was really bought home to me when I was doing some mycoremediation research with a bunch of other crew for a fledgling project, which frankly died in the arse after the client realised that yes, Mushrooms Can Maybe Save The World, but that it wasn't going to be as easy as it sounded and he'd actually have to pay for some proper research. Which may not give him the results as seen on Youtube. Half the stuff or more Stamets quoted was done at least a decade previously by others- this was published work at the time too. I never heard mention of it in any of his work I read or heard which led me to the papers, but a quick Google made it really obvious once I stopped shaking my head around certain incongruities of dates and facts. Personally I'm well over the cult of celebrity around some speakers. Maybe it's needed in order to raise awarenesses ( ha! ) of their special subjects- a certain amount of celebrity is more of a media honeypot. But often there's not enough at the back of it to justify the hype. This could also be as much a criticism of audiences as much as of celebrity- too many people looking for pub flair and dinner party convo and easy fixes who CBF with their fact checking or sticking with something longer than five minutes to get a deeper understanding. But a professional presenter of information has a responsibility of conveying accuracy, conferring credit where it's due, and not slipping into hype. And he's failing at that- instead of encouraging a community of colleagues he's fuelling consumption of dumbed-down sound bytes, unjustified speculation and increasing sales figures. Look, the bloke's written some great books, runs a good business as far as I can tell, and is probably kind to old ladies and small kittens. Good on 'im. More power to his writing arm. He's bought the issues of the importance of fungi to the public hive-mind in a way nobody else has. That's a breath of fresh air. But it doesn't make him Mushy Jesus or anything. It's Planet Of The Spivs out there in every field- science included- and certainly psychedelic science. But it doesn't have to stay that way
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    I first went there on a youth group trip to Mt Warning with this weird religious guy 'Lyle Shelton' as one of the leaders, The religion was a bit warped IMO but I discovered for the first time orchids, glow in the dark mushrooms, massive crayfish in the mountain streams, and jumped through the waterfall at Natural Arch. I decided then and there I wanted to live there for the rest of my life as it was an incredible step up from the dirty slums I was raised in. I started going there on hollidays and staying at backpackers and camp sites, I met a dude in Nimbin who bought a block of land beside the National park for bloody 30 GRAND!!!! and I decided I wanted a big block of land in the bush too. So my plan was to go to uni to achieve this. Many moons later I have an ecology degree and a huge block of land in NNSW surrounded (mostly) by bush. Was it all worth it? -Yes. Was it difficult? -FKN harder than I ever imagined! But it was all one small step at a time. You only live life once man, and it sure beats the boring shitty lives my high-school mates ended up with. I kept telling myself, I just wanna leave something awesome to my kids one day. Some other good things that came out of the journey was the discovery of a new plant species and discovery of a new insect, a heap of trips to remote PNG, A beautiful intellectual wife, helping a lot of less-fortunate people in PNG, working on orchid and butterfly research with my Uni lecturers, and spending a lot of time in nature in general. I prolly wouldn't have done half as many exciting wonderful things if I wasn't working towards my goal of a block of land in Nth NSW. If it's the thing you want the most in life then make it your priority. Aim high dude and stay out of trouble, Don't try to take shortcuts on the black market, I've seen too many people crash and burn down that particular road.
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    Trichocereus peruvianus "Clyde" x Zelly is perhaps my favorite new eye candy. Picture taken today.
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    From the album Trichocereus Freaks

    Trichocereus bridgesii pure species yellow
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    I am no expert on Coleus however I feel as though my observations must be shared with this community. I have been reading of the use of the mysterious Coleus plant it seems, according to research and examination of 'trip reports', that eating/blending small leaves, smoking the leaves and sometimes producing a tea provides noticeable yet minimal effects in comparison to other psychedelic substances. However I came across one report on the Erowid Experience Vault where the user ate one large leaf described as a "leaf was about 6 inches long and 4-5 inches wide with lots of dark red on it", just before going to sleep. I will summarise his experience but if your are interested in this topic i recommend you to read the article https://erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=56882 . His dream was set in the future and it involved violent aliens coming to Earth. He then advised his friend to try a large leaf before going to sleep (without telling his friend about his dream) and his friend reported to have the exact same dream. Here is where it gets interesting. ∂an reported about his use of Coleus (http://www.shaman-australis.com/forum/index.php?/topic/36752-using-plants-to-catalyse-dreams/#comment-441722) where he consumed some large leaves of the plant before going to bed. Very, very similar to the way the other user took Coleus. He too reported of violent aliens coming to Earth. Who knows if this was a coincidence or if this plant is hiding mystical secrets, however if the main active component of this plant is found and isolated its potential could be incredible. Look at Salvia Divinorum for example, it was thought to be 'placebo' and only have minimal effects however once the active compound Salvinorin A was found and extracts I don't think any people who have used the extract believe it only has minimal effects anymore . Just saying... it could have very high potential if studied more considering the freakishly similar dreams users who have eaten large, mature leaves before sleeping.
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    Yeah, I hope so too SayN. Thanks. I don't really know anyone who is mad enough for my soft of parties irl. Will have to see what I can do.... Couple of pics.
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    It's all a big conspiracy designed to make us think that dinosaurs are real yo!
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    hey hello, in the last 2 months I have been searching and finding shells of sea moluscs and also fossilized leaves and branches, coal, a small spider etc. My finds are local - the deposits are dated from upper pliocane to upper pleistocane.. these are clay deposists. my the whole area was submerged back then... Anyone into searching or that has found some nice fossil? any pleiocane-pleistocane finds?
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    Ok folks, the date i set. Sorry it took so long, but I had to wait for a few other things to fall into place. Please start making your arrangements to come to Mullumbimby from the 20th to the 22nd. Camping on my property will be available from friday lunchtime through to monday lunchtime. If you want to stay around the area before or after then please make independent arrangements. if you can only make it for part of the time then please aim to be there for at least saturday afternoon. This is when we will take some time out to specifically remember Christian as a whole group. To avoid unpredictable numbers this event will be ticketed and there will be a $10 fee. This is simply so we don't get people announcing big groups, but then not turning up. The funds will also help with costs such as toilets, shelters, etc. I haven't quite worked out how to set this all up yet, but will provide details in the next few days. I'll also get some quotes and then set up a donations target. Not aiming for anything big, but just the essentials. It all depends on the group size too. Anyone who can't afford the $10 please discuss with me privately. The fire danger period will be finished by then, so a communal fire in the open paddock should be no problem unless there is unseasonal hot & dry weather. The property has a lot of long grass, so there can't be any fires in other areas, but you can use camping stoves etc.. A BBQ will also be provided for anyone to use. A tap with drinkable bore water is also available for refilling water bottles, etc. I'll provide more info about what's available in mullum and what is not in the next few weeks. The property is just 7mins drive from mullumbimby. It can be walked, but some of it is along a very fast and dangerous road, so best to arrange lifts to our laneway (which is still about 1km from the property). I'll add all new info to the first post for ease of reference.
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    hey man, where i grew up there is a gully with a really awesome Permian (300-250 million years old) fossil site. cool thing is, me, my friends & just a few other people are the only ones who know about this specific site.. a few months ago i went back there for the first time in years & collected some cool specimens.. the deposit dates from a era when Australia was part of gondwana & was somewhere down much closer to the south pole.. the fossils are from a shallow sea which had seasonal sea ice. most of the fossils are of gastropods, brachiopods & bryozoans like fenestella & crinoids but you can also find trilobites & other things. A couple of pics from my last trip:
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    Just in case people in and around Melbourne have missed this going around on facebook, the newly(ish) formed Australian Psychedelic Society is looking to host integration circles: The fb event is here: https://www.facebook.com/events/166531263997722/ , or you can contact them via the email above.
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    From the album Trichocereus Freaks

    Slab Graft Trichocereus pachanoi crested
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    From the album Sydney garden

    A couple of months ago some creature, probably a possum, maybe a cat, attacked one of my San Pedro and ripped of its 3 small pups. I put them in dry perlite, and they've all rooted now! This is the smallest of the 3 detached pups. Has anyone ever rooted their pups this small before?
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    Some very nice finds Sagi n Paradox and Wile. hunting for fossils is great fun, I found this one at Gantheaume point in Broome quite a few years ago, a mussel shell, I ground a bit of the surface rock off it, this fossil was sitting on the sand at the tide mark. N these I have collected over 20 years This is one is special to me, opalised shell from Coober Pedy, wish I could write that I found it but I didn't, I bought it.
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    Looking forward to seeing these guys support Cosmic Psychos
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    Hey guys, new to SAB and sorta new to cactusing. I started collecting trichs in November and have come a long way thanks to the generosity of the community. Here are a few photos of some of my plants. Hope you enjoy and I look forward to learning with you all and maybe sharing some of the 3500 seeds I've got planted!
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    Very reluctantly I have had to put these up for auction. You will Never See these Again!! These are over 20yrs Old.. All 4 Mushroom's Wood turned Hand Made 1 of a kind.. Made from Australian hard wood These have never been exposed to outdoor conditions. The splits in the wood Mushrooms are from natural shrinkage. The stems are Hard wood Only put outside for photo. Are a perfect addition to your prized pot plant These Hand Crafted Mushrooms will never be made again,,, Because the Craftsman has passed on to a better place. I am sure the winning bidder will be Very happy with them. There is Good Karma in these.. But it my time to pass these on to someone who needs good luck. https://www.ebay.com.au/itm/273097693355 I will donate 20% of the total auction to SAB for letting me list this here.. Thanks mole
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    Cheers, no Ive never felt the call for mapacho. If im smudging a big group, I use Acacia. I was "instructed" to get a traditional Chapaka and was shown a vibrational cleansing using Aqua de flora and throat singing vibration. A fragrant fanning percussive droning with a unique beat and melody for every person, depending on their energetic needs, channeled thru the vine. With bigger groups, usually with cactus, I work with a partner who has trained with a Cactus shaman and she uses Mapacho when available. She is bringing the Shaman over in spring, so I get to hang with a Cactus Superman who doses every day. My first Shaman.
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    Over the years I've met many Shaman. The first was back in the early Nineties. He was doing Aya ceremony's in Bali as part of a corporate retreat for Japanese business executives. I'm not bagging the fella, he was a good bloke and clearly knew his stuff. However, despite what his business card said, this is not what I consider a Shaman. To me a Shaman is a healer, not a business man, they are found working with needy villagers, not doing ceremony's for wealthy tourists. It's just my opinion, but if you have the choice between doing a ceremony with a knowledgeable friend, in a relaxed setting, or going with someone who cares more about the content of your wallet, that your mind. I think the answer is obvious.
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    See how the flowers in the first pic aren't hairy (covered in trichomes) that's how you know it isn't a Trichocereus which basically means 'hairy cactus' (referring to the flowers). The thin-ish ribs will also tell you that it's a Cereus, a nice short-spine one.
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    I once met who I thought I was. It made me cry.
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    I have a very few specimens that seem to develop purple coloring after exposure to colder temperatures. Out of my many Huarazensis x Zelly hybrids... these two show a bit of purple. Out of my Trichocereus scopulicola x Trichocereus terscheckii seedlings I have just one so far that is showing any purple... but I don't have that many of this hybrid grafted either so I'd say this is a pretty good indicator that this last hybrid may throw out purples in a higher concentration and perhaps darker specimens than what I am seeing. Anyway, I'd like to see everyones purples if they don't mind sharing. The few purples from the many Zelly seedlings I have grafted are growing on me. Lets hope this trait stays with them as they mature. And please... post your own purples here my friends as I know I'm not the only one with them.
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    I went to the local botanical garden today for a visit about poisonous plants. The visit itself was pretty good, although the guy fucking butchered Banisteriopsis as "Basteniros" or something like that, and at one point the dude whipped a potted loph out of his hand bag (I kid you not) and called it "Lophophora williamson". Mainly showed us some Apocynaceae vines, a couple Solenaceae, some Dieffencbachia, Laurel, Yew, etc... He showed us an Apocynaceae he said some shamans use as an admixture to ayahusca, the name escapes me at the moment and I forgot to take a pic. He showed us their Erythroxylum coca tree which got fucking raped by some mongrels, he said last year it was over 2m tall, there's now only a small 50cm or so shrub left... Anyways, the plants I was most hyped about weren't mentioned, found them by strolling around. here are some pics: - Psychotria peduncularis, wasn't able to ask for a leaf unfortunately but I will come back for it: - Tabernaemontana corymbosa, was able to get a little cutting, hope it'll take it got a bit floppy on the way back home: - Theobroma cacao: - Ilex paraguariensis, for some reason the leaves of their maté have a very different phenotype from my own shrub: - Acacia gourmaensis: - Big Hylocereus undatus: - Huge 3+ meters tall Myrtillocactus geometrizans: - Pereskia grandiflora: - Pereskia saccharosa: - Pereskiopsis diguetti: - Pereskiopsis or maybe Quiabentia? Saw it from outside the greenhouse but wasn't able to find it inside. Unfortunately this greenhouse was closed to the public, spotted a bunch of nice trichos: - Mammillaria elongata: - Cereus jamacaru var. monstrose: - Big ass agave: - Aristolochia gigantea: - View from the entrance of one of the huge tropical greenhouses which was built around 1870: There's so much more I need to take pics of, I will go back there soon.
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    The international mycologist is very busy, I get responses to my messages Wile, still waiting to hear if the sample I sent him first before alvalab has been found. This is why I went with alvalab as when you pay for a service it usually gets completed a bit faster. I had let this go and was content with the 98% from alvalab and 99% from a local mycologist who viewed the results also, Then i sent the results to the international guy and it's all in the air again as he is quite sure just from external characteristics that I have at least 1 different species that may not be a sub in the 3 samples. Was around 80eu to have the 3 samples tested Anodyne, you pay for the services you require from a list. Took around 6 weeks including post time of 7-10 days to get the results back and then a futher week as I asked for another test to be done to tryn narrow down the extra 2% thing. Im confused as well man. Tryn to get this done so I have a definitive answer on at least one of the samples is frustrating. I've no idea but I think I need a result that says 100% like the first sample in the pics, then I will be happy. Mushroom tests prolly don't work like that, who knows...... Im all for keeping the things we find here, here. Prob is though the whole Psilocybe mushroom thing here is so covert. Even transporting the sample or samples to a herbarium one would risk prosecution, prob can get an official letter etc, Pablo offers to upload the data for a fee to Genbank which I will prob do, once I have a definitive answer one way or the other on what the 2 samples are that are still in question. This season I will collect samples of the 2 odd subs and have them tested agian, I may go with a couple labs and get the full range of tests done so the data is there for everyone to analyse. Both these mushroom grow in quite isolated places, in pine coups, that were once bush.
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    OH MY GRACIOUS... Everyone I am SO sorry for not checking out my PMs to date etc. FARK, if I was any slacker, I'd be comatose! LOADS of caapi cuttings for anyone interested - whether you'd like them pre-rooted (just give me a few weeks) if you're in a cold climate or if not and would like a few cuttings sent out to root yourself, caapi is ridiculously hardy... well it seems to love the conditions in NQ and I DON'T water my plants. So this isn't really actually much more than an acknowledgement that I realise I've dropped the ball and I apologise I haven't replied to my messages just yet. I still want to upload a photo so you can see how that random cutting is now thriving. Thank you for your lovely comment @Xperiment - I have a couple of varieties of caapi dotted around the garden and definitely won't hurt my vine to cut some back! @El Presidente Hillbillios *sigh* I suppose we can come to some sort of arrangement Cheers all, again, I apologise to everyone who has messaged me. I WILL get around to reading your messages and responding. Seriously, loads of caapi cuttings, it's all good, it's just me. And somehow I've managed to go from bold to normal font or is it just me? Ok, time to crash. Night kids. Edit: words, couldn't be arsed fixing the font, sorry
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    Nice thread and gorgeous plants everyone! Here's what I got: - Pachanoi monstrose, sourced from Italia. Looks similar to the Altman clone? The guy sells PC labeled as such so it's likely: - Crested pachanoi, sourced from europe. Last pic is from last year, it grows fast: - Sausagy/caespitose/monstrose T. peruvianus, it literally pupped from every single areole on the bottom half or so: - Caespitose pachanoi or maybe peruvianus, some of the pups aren't normal pups as in they didn't emerge from an areole, but rather that areole started swelling and morphing into a pup, as seen in the middle of the last pic: - Pachanoi seedlings from Koehres seeds, seemingly doing some funky stuff. They'll be grafted soon: - If hybrids count, here are some. First I have this magnificent Oscar x Helen grown by PedroPark. I might soon cut one of the tiny pups off and graft it: - TPM x SS02 crest, a thing of beauty. Sourced from Spooge like all the following plants: - TPM x Pachanoi Monstrose: - TPM x Pachanoi: - TPQC x TPM crest:
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    Cat Earth Theory: Are you woke?
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    Ill jump on that one @Thatplantguy thanks! Ill leave: Some Ephedra fragilis seed Some Sida cordifolia seed Some Sida rhombifolia seed Some Acacia acuminata seed Some mixed tobacco seed (4 types) Some catnip seed if ya wanna get your furball trippin haha
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    Back in early Feb I decided I want to try grafting a few loph pups from the mother plant I picked up a month earlier Made straight cuts on stock and scion, tried to cross the vascular rings as best I could, tried to get any air out too. Held it down tight af with the foot of a stocking Boom, now I have this and another. Keeping a note of how I am doing things in a little journal so I don't forget how I did things and what worked/didn't work. Had 2 failures but I've let them callous and go into soil to hopefully grow roots. Trying tricho to pere. Used some leaf juice as glue. Put into an old fish tank with a glad wrap lid and some water in a small bowl to make it humid. Only way to learn. Some of my Gastrolobium bilobum (1080 plants) Some Nexus I've been playing around with. Got 4 strains of viridis too now. Wish I could get rooted cuttings but no one wants to send to WA.. leaf will have to do. Some of the jams I've grown from my plantation seed. The same seed I did a giveaway with here and via the SAB fb group. Lots of happy recipients already. 2 weeks ago I put down seed into this tray (a small gift from a forum member - quite good too, I like the depth of it compared to other trays I have), and 1 week later a bloody bird came in and ate 50+ seedlings. Re-did HWT seed batch and I now have 61 of 63 cells with a seedling... contained in a bloody cat trap.. to keep birds out... Someone on this forum ever so generously sent me some Acacia obtusifolia seed late last year. This is them now... Thank you to whoever it was (I have a shit memory) - please PM so I can say thanks again! Hopefully give a few away at the next Perth meet. @saylor twift ? I think it was you. Got these 4 D metel seedlings to me. I have had over 30 flowers between 4 plants. The smell is incredible. Unfortunately no seeds have set yet. Wonder if it's a lack of bugs? Torsten mentioned that the opening of the flower is usually enough to pollinate Datura? Hopefully one of them does throw seed as I'd love to share. The purple is intense! My scop x Super Pedro is a little dehydrated at the moment. Noticed this lump. Feels solid and round.. could it be a non emergent pup? My 2 Nexus. One on left was the same size as the one on the right back in early December. Going to put some more leaves down to propagate for local members/giveaway plantlets.
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    No worries I am glad for people feeling called to exploring this path. I also feel a sense of responsibility to dispel what seems to be misinformation that circulates into the information available to seekers. I would say that telepathy isn't what I have experienced as part of the transmission taking place. I have had thoughts and overwhelming non verbal responses that were clearly guidance but all thoughts have been my mind and I would say that a large part of my progress has been learning to know when and what to ask, and when to shut up and just experience. So often the mind is a mechanism trying to comprehend that which is beyond the conceptual mind. There is alot of "showing" and "teaching" that takes place beyond words and ideas, where the resulting thoughts and ideas and the "quantification" of the happening actually get in the way of the work being done. I agree with you that karmic imprints have certain frequencies. I see it as distinct vibration from each human emotion, vibrational intensity of will or absorption of tranquility/letting go. If you know and return from your own darkness, you can better know the darkness of others, and if you know your light then you can lead others into darkness and out from darkness. This is how a shaman works, teaching the passenger to tame the rage or terror, pierce the doubt, reflect upon the greed, things like that. I think it is an ability able to be cultivated. We need to be able to tune into vibrational frequencies without falling prey to emotions and then attenuate them in the direction we want to go. Electromagnetic waves and fields are transmitted and received by the body, including the heart. The theory and evidence that the human heart can be a powerful sense organ for this communication is touched on by some, such as Stephen Harold Buhner. It is fascinating stuff but I tend to focus on direct experience as my guide. As a wise zen master with little english said once when he came to the west, what he thought of Buddhism (and I reflect that this encompasses more than the dhamma): He said "Books books books....too many too many too many...dust bin dust bin dust bin. Mind is a crossroads of agendas upon the path to divinity. There have been amazing shared experiences in ceremony between two or more than two, but in the end if they are not used in the right way they just become a fond memory, a cool story. The work is much deeper than that and in truth ceremony does not begin with the cup or end with the morning light. Now this is all said, I would say very honestly: I am but a child. I know nothing.
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    As some may know, I'm a polyphenol fiend. I've been looking at good ways to keep those polyphenols at high levels. Everything from frequent cacao/blueberries, a bit of Lotus root as a veggie, to a bit of true cinnamon to grape seed. I find the variety keeps things good and keeps up with my need for novelty. Haven't tried pine bark yet Lately, I've been trying to live off the land a bit, gather my own food rather than buy it. Some of my largely living off the land (via community garden and ethical means) harvests: That said, finding solid polyphenol doses isn't always easy, sometimes a cheap supplement is useful. Over the other polyphenols, not neglecting my daily anthocyanins, proanthocyanidin rich sources from food more might be promising. Trying to incorporate a diverse range of polyphenols into my diet. Things like dietary diversity score correlate strongly with depression. Proanthocyanidin rich sources have been described as possessing central nervous system effects and have traditionally been used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat disorders of the mind Foods with the highest proanthocyanidin content are cinnamon (8,000mg/100 g of fresh weight (FW)) grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) are another rich source, with a content of about 3,500 mg/100 g dry weight. Proanthocyanidins accumulate to levels of approximately 10% total dry weight of cacao seeds. Consumption of grape seed extract, a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger, enhances the plasticity of hippocampus in middle-aged mice. It modulates the CNS function and has beneficial effects on the direct and indirect striato-thalamo-cortical pathways Along with Pine Bark, Lotus root, the edible rhizome of Nelumbo nucifera, contains high levels of polyphenolic compounds. (+)-catechin, gallocatechin or epigallocatechin, quercetin glycoside, quercetin glucuronide, procyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin dimer gallate, prodelphinidin dimers, procyanidin trimers, etc. Lotus root effectively attenuated cognitive damage and improved parameters related to brain aging in senescent mice. It was able to stimulate antioxidant enzyme activity and improve cholinergic deficits. One small randomised trial in ADHD suggests, despite various limitations, therapeutic benefit from herbal, polyphenol-rich extracts, particularly proanthocyanidins. Attention and concentration (as measured by tests before and after the experiment) improved just as much with a daily regimen of pine bark-derived OPCs as with traditional ADHD stimulant medications. Additionally, the subjects reported experiencing better sleep and improved mood while taking the OPC supplement, corroborating centuries’ worth of accumulated evidence from traditional systems of medicine that OPCs positively affect brain function. Pycnogenol, improved focus, decreased emotional volatility, and elevated mood. A study tested Pycnogenol on the cognitive abilities and emotional status of 53 healthy students aged 18–27. The students were tested before and after a regimen of Pycnogenol (100 mg/day) on measures of attention, memory, alertness, executive functioning, and mood, and showed significant improvements across-the-board after eight weeks of Pycnogenol supplementation. That said, while they're better options than psychostimulants, current evidence to support their use clinically is limited.
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    Sorry Glaukus, couldn't help myself... That's fucking terrifying. I feel like this thread should be happening around a campfire. I've had many experiences of being watched or mildly toyed with in the bush, always by indigenous spirits. I've never seen an apparition as such; the closest I've had was near Nimbin in 2005. I was clearing an overgrown patch of land with a machete for my host and started to feel like someone was throwing stones or something past my ear, just clipping it. It was just on dark and I kept looking up, trying to find the insect that was messing with me. It kept happening, and I looked up towards a parting in the trees heading down towards a valley. I had the sensation of my eyes trying to focus on something that wasn't there, ie they wanted to focus on something directly between two trees, and could feel an aboriginal man standing there and staring at me in a very threatening/accusatory fashion. I got out of there very quickly and tried to laugh it off with the host. She said, 'Ahh yeah, they're the Min Min; this place belongs to them but they let us use it during the day. I never go outside at night.' I guess that's a bit off topic; I was quite profoundly stoned but have had many experiences like that without intoxication. I assume you're looking for stories of completely fantastic situations, @Thelema? I'll stop hijacking your thread now
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    In 1995 I was tripping in the bush with my buddy on lsd, it was middle of the day. Broad daylight. We both saw a young girl, maybe 10 years old, wearing a white dress. She was maybe 50 or 75 metres away, with blonde hair. The sale of dress looked old fashioned, I couldn't put a period on it, it looked faux colonial, maybe 1970s era? Completely out of place and we both confirmed we saw her, and expressed surprise, as we were nowhere near any houses. It was not a place you would see someone who had just walked there without a lot of effort. She looked at us and turned away. The she walked into the bush towards the base of a sheer rock wall. We followed her as she went out of sight, but very quickly came to a dead end. There was no path and nowhere she could have gone, the bush was very thick and the rock wall blocked us totally. The hairs on my body were standing on end and we got out of there fast. I don't think I have spoken to my friend about this since that day. I'll ask him what he remembers of the experience, but for me, it was unsettling to say the least. It was broad daylight, we were both reasonably lucid (but nowhere near sober), and both saw this happen.
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    Oh, the places I have been, the things I have seen. Huge tower like God with eye's that act differently and independently from each other which communicates with a radio like voice. Sexy jesters with a very Asiatic look, trying to seduce me. Invisible entities that have locked me in a dark room and given me a good stern talking to. Horrific scorpion like entities that have attacked me. Benevolent black hole/galaxy like entities that have passed back through from hyperspace to this realm and discussed food and fish with me. So many different creatures... I could go on and on. and on....
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    This would be pretty impressive considering in humans neurogenesis has only been proven to occur in the hippocampus (for memory encoding but not storage) and in the olfactory bulb (involved in your sense of smell). And of these new neurons, the vast majority of them do not survive anyway, let alone have anything to do with the auditory or visual systems (although as a caveat, everything in the brain is massively interlinked). Additionally, all our senses have multiple maps throughout our central nervous system(from receptor/sensation to cortex/perception), especially audition and vision which each have in excess of 3 to 6 hierarchical maps respectively on their way to higher cortical functions such as conscious perception of stimuli. If you start adding in new neurons into established maps at certain points along that hierarchy (e.g. at lower/earlier stages) then that would entirely mess with the processing of any information at later/higher stages. This is one of the major theories as to why humans have extremely limited ability for neurogenesis, compared to say certain fish species which can do so at hugely more impressive levels and rates. Lower vertebrates like fish lack the neural complexity (e.g. your cortex) such that renewing neural tissue is unlikely to disrupt any processing downstream at higher functional levels. For example, goldfish vision has only one map, from the retina to the optic tectum. Cut the optic nerve and it only has to grow neurons and map them to the correct place once. Humans (as well as the tectum) has a visual system with maps at every stage along the path from retina > thalamus > V1 cortex > V2 cortex > V3/4 cortex > V5 and/or parietal and/or inferotemporal cortex etc etc. So lets say you can induce neurogenesis at the level of the V1 cortex, what happens to everything downstream of that when the map has been changed at V1??? Hopefully some of that makes sense, but as for anything that mentions neurogenesis, I have one suggestion, question everything and doubt everything until proven otherwise as it is a media buzzword which we still really have no idea about. On a lighter note, I totally agree that there is some awesome research coming out in regard to Psilocybin which is well worth looking at. It certainly seems to be very promising for a number of uses, and psychedelics in general are finally starting to gain speed in research ethics approvals which is awesome (especially as the psychopharmacology of psychedelics is what I'm aiming towards in my studies) so the future does look positive.
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    When I was very young, working as a kitchen hand. Every day I had to chop lots of parsley, put it in a tea towel, rise it under the tap, then twist the tea towel and squeeze out the juice. This allowed the parsley to keep better on the bench during service. One of the chefs told me that drinking the juice would get you stoned, so I tried it. It does get you a bit stoned. I started saving up several days worth to try a bigger dose, but the boss told me it ruins your liver so I through it out.
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    the weekend of fri 20th april to sunday 22nd is actually able to do for us ,....suppose someone has to chuck a can in to kick around