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The Corroboree


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  1. 9 points
    OVERVIEW We have lost the so-called war on drugs, but the battle rages on and Australians are being made to live in the wreckage. Drug-induced deaths have hit their highest number in 20 years and 200,000 Australians are unable to get the treatment they need each year. Now is the time for meaningful and effective drug policy reform. For a courageous movement forging a new path for people affected by drug policy. A hand that reaches out with help and not handcuffs. Join us for the launch event at Sydney Town Hall and hear from Sir Richard Branson, Dr Marianne Jauncey, and Dr Khalid Tinasti, about how we can reform lives and reform drug policy, for the fair treatment of all people. Friday 12th October - Art exhibit and doors open at 10am. Guests are requested to be in their seats at 10:45 with the program to begin promptly at 11am KEY SPEAKERS Sir Richard Branson – Founder of the Virgin Group, and Member of the Global Commission on Drug Policy (GCDP). Dr Marianne Jauncey – Medical Director of the Uniting Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC), Conjoint Senior Lecturer at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre UNSW, and a Clinical Senior Lecturer at Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney. Dr Khalid Tinasti -Executive Secretary of the Global Commission on Drug Policy (GCDP), Visiting Fellow at the Global Studies of the University of Geneva and Honorary Research Associate at Swansea University. FREE ENTRY - just make sure you register here first: http://www.fairtreatment.org/
  2. 5 points
    Welcome. I greet you in the Love and in the Light. I just wanted to share some information with our community about an organisation that I recently came across. THE AUSTRALIAN CANNABIS UNIVERSITY https://australiancannabisuniversity.org/ The Australian Cannabis University is a not-for-profit community of like-minded people, aiming to bust through the political nonsense and to get Cannabis the legal recognition that it deserves. The University aims to teach students about the plant, how to grow it naturally, how to process it for health purposes, how to work through diseases naturally and much more. The ACU headquarters is nestled in the middle of 3,000 acres in the heart of Kunghur in Northern NSW in which all members are invited to visit, learn and help look after the land. OPEN DAY 2018 There is an Open Day being held from the 18th - 23rd October 2018 at the farm of the Australian Cannabis University. More information about the Open Day program can be found on their website. JOIN THE UNIVERSITY For just $1 you can join the Australian Cannabis University as a life time member. Their aim is to get 10,000 members so that they can change the law via a mandate presented to the Australian Government. Not only will you be assisting the change of outdated laws, but you will have access to their ever growing database of online learning materials and can also directly access ACU Cannabis experts with any questions you may have. Love & Light ∞
  3. 5 points
    Spooge, it is soooooo unintuitive, but all the functions are there. The developer is really keen to improve it so hopefully I can guide some of the language choices. Biggest problem i have so far is that when I enable paypal as payment option it wants to use the forum's paypal address. That's exactly what I don't want, LOL. The other issue (and the reason why it is not live yet) is that when using bank transfer option the item is not removed from the available list. That's obviously not workable and shouldn't be difficult to fix for the developer. I want to get it right rather than rushed.
  4. 5 points
    The Australian Psychedelic Society will be hosting an Integration Circle in grungy comfort of Hope St Warehouse in Brunswick, on October 7th. An Integration Circle is a safe space to talk about your psychedelic experiences. You each have a unique story, and feeling heard and understood by others is essential to integrating your experience. The stories of others may also help provide you further insight. We will start off with talks from mental health professionals discussing the importance of integration and how to do it. You will then have an opportunity to tell your own psychedelic story, if you so desire. Limited spots available. Tea and snacks will be provided. When: October 7th, 2pm-5pm Where: 11a Hope st, Brunswick Tickets: $10 Facebook event: https://www.facebook.com/events/2199285157011824/ Ticket link: https://www.eventbrite.com.au/e/aps-integration-circle-october-tickets-49785680310 Disclaimer: This is not a replacement for therapy. If you are currently in crisis, we recommend that you see your GP for a mental health care plan, call your local area psychiatric triage or lifeline (13 11 14).
  5. 5 points
    To the excellent advice already offered above, I would also recommend growing from seed. You can get a lot of plants relatively cheaply, with a little patience. Seedlings are fairly resilient and you can learn as you go. And as an added bonus you might turn up a crested, monstrous or variegated phenotype.
  6. 4 points
    You can eat the kale, do the meditations, sip on the plant medicine but how healing is that really? I got disenchanted with 'plant medicine' as it was often turning into a bunch of band-aid experiences and pits of continuous self-medication. I saw lots of people embarking on the same loop, it seemed to be a pathway of less healing than expected. Anyone else found that? I think we've often lost some aspect of simply nurturing something that doesn't give back to us with food or medicine etc. A deeper connection to the Web of Life. I started growing some non-medicinals, things that weren't providing me with anything, and noticed something... From the butterfly attracting Milkweed to Milly's forget-me-nots to Acacias I'd never had any interest in... In the past, a plant's worth was dictated to me by what it could do for food or medicine, a very ego-centric view on the plant. There was nothing spiritual or worthwhile about a plant being simply a living entity, the essence of respect was often not there/not as deep - what did it do for us other than provide a bit of oxygen?!? It's "just a plant"... I was centred around always taking something from a plant, be it food, medicine, boosts in self etc. If we treat humans in such a way, constantly dictating their worth by what they can do "for me/us" and with limited respect for their unique worthwhile existence, that's a very unhealthy view that's all too prevalent in society - I believe our human relationships are often mirrored in the way we treat the Earth. If we flip that "for me/us" around into what we can do "for them" without expectation of something in return, that's the start of some healing. In that flip, you also seemingly make room for healthy natural reciprocity Today I see the worth of a plant beyond that narrow view. I'm starting to nurture something that I don't expect anything in return from. The essence of each plant has it's own gift, beyond a phytopharmacological or nutritional cocktail, and deserves respect - a more eco-centric and spirited view Looking forward to Trees for Life
  7. 4 points
    Well said @Inyan Coming from only ever being interested in plants for medicinal aspects, to then finding the enjoyment of creating that nourishing connection to food, I always dismissed anything else as aesthetic gardening and pointless. Not saying food/medicine isn't important, I'm just surprised to find how the act of relationship with something that won't deliver a therapeutic brew or even food really breaks the addictive consumption mindset - something I was always struggling with
  8. 4 points
    I've been growing plants since I was could tie my shoes. I propagated African Violets by leaf before I learned my times tables. The bottom line is I love plants, nature, forests, etc. Watching butterflies hatch, hummingbirds swoop in... it all makes me feel at peace. When you hybridize, graft, grow from seed, etc... you often learn to take thing slow and find excitement in watching the simplest flower open for the first time. You become an active participant in nature, but I don't think that is limited to the plants we grow simply to grow. Nor are the plants we grow for medicines or food any less important. For me, it is the connection we make with nature and with plants in general and that relationship can be fostered just like any other relationship. Treat your plants with respect and realize that they have gifts to offer such as food, medicine, beauty, purifying the air, etc. But also realize we can bring gifts to our plants. Gifts of water, fertilizer, good soil, appreciation, respect, and yes even the air we breath out. We are connected. We are related. That is what it is all about. Fostering that feeling that we instinctively know is true, but also realizing that science validates that connection as we truly are all connected.
  9. 4 points
    Don't get me started... http://www.responsiblechoice.com.au/
  10. 4 points
    Monsanto is back in the news today. New enquiry about to kick off apparently with U.S citizens claiming it has caused their cancer. If there is definitive proof that RoundUp is a carcinogen the implications for our global food economy would be huge. Another reason to appreciate growing your own fruit and veg and being as self sufficient as possible
  11. 4 points
    Also, from what I understand about structure of this operation, it's not actually Huan who does the collection, packaging, labelling, shipping etc. I think everybody involved has the best of intentions, but as I said above, it's just a little rustic. If you want these seed it's the only option.
  12. 4 points
    Yeah, took a day to upload, but its not playing propa. oh well, those spirits are still a bit camera shy. I recently had my hip joint sawed off, and its buried under my vine. So my DNA is in my ayahausca !! Along with all my old dogs. The vine is a complete carnivore, it devours bodies, something that doesent get discussed. Maybe a new thread...."what dead things have you fed your vine".
  13. 4 points
    How do you modulate your serotonin system with dietary factors? I wanted to try and address persistent issues at the most fundamental dietary level possible - amino acids, vitamins. I tried some challenge doses with tyrosine and tryptophan and the later seemed to provide the most robust improvements. I keep on top of B-vitamins but assumed tryptophan in dietary protein was going to be enough... I've been abstinent from deleterious things for a long time now but it didn't mean health was improving. I couldn't shift a worsening phenotype of persistent emotional and mood dysregulation, cognitive decline, multiple night time awakenings and poor sleep quality, uncharacteristic uncontrollable verbal aggression (to the point of coprolalia), impulsiveness, intrusive thoughts, obsessiveness and plain dysphoria. SSRIs alone were not getting at the issue sufficiently. Diet, exercise and meaningful activity wasn't stopping the roller-coaster. Studies have found disturbances of tryptophan metabolism and their association with depression in alcoholics. Particularly, a decreased tryptophan ratio to other amino acids competing with tryptophan for brain entry has been investigated - diminished supply of tryptophan would lead to serotonin deficiency and thus contribute to depression in alcoholics Depressed alcoholics had significantly decreased ratios of plasma tryptophan to amino acids sharing with it the same transport carrier into the brain (tryptophan ratio). This ratio has been shown to predict the brain serotonin concentration. It is not presently known whether amino acid modifications disappear after a period of abstinence or persist [1]. Patients who had exhibited violent behavior were observed to have tryptophan ratios lower than patients with no history of violence. Research has demonstrated a robust response to increasing plasma Trp/LNAA ratio, stimulating a significant affective response. Unexpectedly Trp supplementation not only improved central serotonergic functioning but improved the profile of tryptophan metabolism [2]. [1] http://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-AA006510-02 [2] https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/50/94/8b/2fef42545c61d4/WO2005049012A2.pdf Using the amino acids is not just addressing pathology but providing some vital things: A source of believable hope, when things feel hopeless A source of day-to-day stability and connection to something when other sources of connection are non-existent or volatile A sense of being in control, when things feel out of control A secure quasi 'attachment relationship' to something when these might not elsewhere exist A safe displacement onto healthier behaviours for residual impulsivity and craving A placebo effect synergistic with added active effects. Placebo effects themselves can be potent medicine, as seen in many illnesses, from depression to Parkinson's. Sure it's better to find these things in other ways but it's often the most stable, permanent connection in times of illness and volatility one can find In recovery: “Glutaminergic-Dopaminergic Optimization Complex Therapy”, has been well-researched in many clinical trials and shown to provide gentle activation of dopamine across the brain reward circuitry in abstinence. Additionally, significant increases in resting state functional connectivity have been demonstrated in human and animal models using state of the art resting state fMRI measurements [1] Amino acid based therapies have led to: Improved Physical and BESS (behavioural, emotional, social and spiritual) Scores Reduced craving, relapse rates and enhanced recovery Stress reduction lead to improved sleep, enhanced energy, and improved focus and performance, reduced appetite, loss of unwanted weight, decreased body inches, and enhanced well-being Cognitive processing speeds were enhanced Significant results were observed for weight loss, sugar craving reduction, appetite suppression, snack reduction, reduction of late night eating, increased energy Research is needed regarding the potential for return of well-being in recovery by the gentle induction of “dopamine homeostasis;” balancing serotonergic, endorphinergic, cannabinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic mechanisms and restoring healthy brain function and connectivity. While I'm just using simple aminos and vitamins, one such version that has been extensively researched is KB220Z which is composed of the following ingredients: 10 mg (500%) vitamin B6, 15 mg (1,033% of daily value) thiamine, 200 mcg (166%) chromium poly nicotinate, and a fixed dose of synaptose. Synaptose is a combination of amino acids and herbs. The amino acids include L-tyrosine, DL-phenylalanine, L-glutamine, and 5-hydroxytryptophan. The herbs include passionflower extract and a complex containing astragalus, arabinogalactans, N-acetylglucosamine, aloe vera, white pine bark extract, frankincense resin, Spirulina, Rhodiola [1] https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F10826084.2016.1244551 What if the serotonergic dimension needs more urgent addressing? I tried L-methylfolate 15mg/day (+B12 1mg) with slight improvements for a short time, then also added some tryptophan [1] to the diet. A few days into adding the Trp and the coprolalia waned, emotional regulation started to return. I started to get malleable non-intrusive thinking again. Mood started to improve. See what happens longer term Folate for Depression, Schizophrenia and Dementia: Folate supplementation may be beneficial for severe mental health problems Folate deficiency seems to be an important contributor for the onset and progression of neuropsychiatric diseases [2]. L-methylfolate addresses hyperhomocysteinemia, lower methylation reactions and tetrahydrobiopterin levels [3]. Brain folate abnormalities causes diminished production and availability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) which is a critical cofactor for the rate-limiting enzymes involved in the synthesis of the monoamine neurotransmitters and may be targeted by L-methylfolate. L-methylfolate should cause, in an over-simplistic framework: -Activation of tryptophan hydroxylase initiates a cascade that leads to the synthesis of serotonin, and -Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase initiates a cascade that leads to the synthesis of dopamine and norepinephrine [1] http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881111430744 [2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25939915 [3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27068282 Why L-methylfolate? Many users find it quite effective - some users get quite rapid responses "Within 1 day, I felt like my internal motor that had been idling along at a 5 out of 10 had been turned up to a 10 for the first time in a long time. I had more energy, clearer thoughts, happier disposition..." "I felt better the first day. I feel like normal people feel. I have hope, motivation, freedom. I am completely happy." "Within just days of my first dose, I could fell a huge, positive difference. My mind and speech were clearer, my anxiety was nearly unrecognizable, and I was just plain happy." "...my lows vanished within first week on 15mg/day." "Within one week of taking L-methylfolate, I had absolutely NO anxiety. It was so quiet in my soul that I almost felt anxiety about not having anxiety! It was foreign to me; the steady drip, drip, drip of adrenalin rushing through my system was shut off." "Within 10 days, I felt more alive, motivated, energetic, and at peace then I had EVER felt in my life. " 15 mg eight days ago and I feel absolutely wonderful. Mood is great, anxiety has improved significantly, and I feel so peaceful. My energy level is up, and I feel hopeful and full of life again. I am so relieved and happy I could cry." I am able to finally really smile and laugh. I have not been able to find humor in things for years. I have more of a sense of well being I have more serenity I have an increased amount of time I feel better emotionally and mentally There is some support for the efficacy of both standard folic acid and L-methylfolate as an augmentation agent for depression [1]. The lowest dose of MTHF studied in depression to augment antidepressant treatment is 7.5 mg, roughly equivalent to 52 mg of folic acid. Synthesis of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine is regulated by L-methylfolate, which can cross the blood brain barrier. "Adjunctive L-methylfolate at 15 mg/day may constitute an effective, safe, and relatively well tolerated treatment strategy for patients with major depressive disorder who have a partial response or no response to SSRIs" [2]. It shows promise against negative symptoms in psychotic illness [3]. "Clinical improvement in depressed patients treated with an SSRI and l-methylfolate (0.5 to 1 mg) was 30 percent greater than that in matched patients treated with an SSRI only. A systematic review of controlled studies (total N = 247) concluded that folate augmentation (1 to 15 mg per day) enhanced the efficacy of conventional antidepressants." "Does folate supplementation relieve symptoms of depression? A ten-week trial of 127 participants compared 0.5 mg/day folic acid (standard folate) augmentation of fluoxetine to placebo augmentation, and found that folic acid significantly outperformed placebo in terms of treatment response rate (38% vs. 18%) and overall improvement on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. However, the advantages for folic acid were not seen until ten weeks into treatment. In a smaller trial, patients with depression or schizophrenia were given either 15 mg methylfolate (equivalent of 7.5 mg L-methylfolate) or placebo in addition to their existing medication regimen. Though hampered by a small sample size (24 depressed patients and 17 patients with schizophrenia), there was a statistically significant benefit on a general clinical outcome scale and there were trends toward a significant benefit on other outcome measures in the six-month study" Administration of MTHF may have significant advantages over administration of folic acid to augment antidepressants in depressed patients who do not respond adequately to their antidepressant treatment. Such patients may or may not be folate deficient, may or may not have the inefficient form of the genotype. "Biomarkers associated with inflammation or metabolism (higher BMI) and genomic markers associated with L-methylfolate synthesis and metabolism may identify patients with SSRI-resistant depression who are responsive to adjunctive therapy with L-methylfolate" [4]. "Patients with schizophrenia who take daily folic acid in the form of methylfolate 15 mg together with an antipsychotic may have fewer positive symptoms (e.g. hallucinations and delusions) and fewer negative psychotic symptoms (paucity of thought, social withdrawal) and may respond more rapidly" [5] [1] https://pro.psychcentral.com/l-methylfolate-for-depression-the-real-deal/ [2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212058 [3] http://www.schizophreniaforum.org/news/l-methylfolate-shows-promise-against-negative-symptoms-schizophrenia [4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24813065 [5] https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/integrative-mental-health-care/201709/folate-depression-schizophrenia-and-dementia Addressing homocysteine and potential B9/B12 deficiencies While I keep on top of B-vitamins generally... Stress can increase homocysteine levels (HCy). Higher levels of hostility were associated with higher levels of homocysteine [1]. People high in hostility are known to report more life stress, it is possible that homocysteine concentrations are elevated among these individuals due to increased stress [2]. Elevated levels of homocysteine have been associated with major depressive illness (and positively correlated with anger and length of depressive episode), bipolar disorder (both during manic and depressive episodes and in euthymic state) and various other mental conditions. "Studies of subjects with a wide range of cognitive functions showed increased plasma Hcy and decreased serum folate and enzymatic cofactors involved in methionine and Hcy metabolism are associated with the risk of cognitive dysfunction" Supplemental use of these vitamins has shown a slowing cognitive decline and also improvement in clinical status in patients with cognitive impairment, particularly in those with high baseline levels of serum Hcy [3]. A high circulating concentration of homocysteine has been implicated as a risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment. Cognitive and psychosocial impairment has been associated with increased levels of homocysteine [4]. While not a specific marker for schizophrenia, hyperhomocysteinemia occurred in our schizophrenia patients with poor social and relational functioning [5]. Elevations of serum homocysteine levels are a consistent finding in addictions. Hyperhomocysteinemia could enhance the substance consumption increasing the severity of craving in a circular self reinforcing mechanism. [6,7] MTHFR variants and smoking behaviour were associated with homocysteine plasma levels [8] Folate deficiency is associated with depression, attention issues, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, along with irritability and behavioural problems. Cerebral folate deficiency has been linked to self-injurious behaviour. In ASD, "In clinic I have certainly seen some very beneficial effects of using the active forms of folate in ASD" [9] Inflammation induced by by low folate concentrations can significantly be attenuated through treatment with appropriate supplementation and result in cognitive function improvement and decrease of peripheral inflammatory cytokine levels B12 deficiency has been "linked to agitation, irritability, negativism, confusion, disorientation, amnesia, impaired concentration and attention and insomnia; while psychiatric disorders that may be diagnosed in patients having vitamin B12 deficiency include depression, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, psychosis, phobias and dementia". B12 deficiency has presented in younger patients with “irritability, regressive behaviour, apathy, crying and truancy” [1] https://news.osu.edu/hostility-anger-linked-to-chemical-that-may-cause-heart-disease/ [2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14724053. [3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29936555 [4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29306698 [5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26017629 [6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28527647 [7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26885351 [8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23285280 [9] http://www.allnaturaladvantage.com.au/home/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Cerebral-Folate-Deficiency.pdf Addressing serotonergic aspects The emotional dysregulation was intense. It seemed to be hypothetically a very 5-HT deficient state Both fear/terror and anger/rage are here further assumed to be low-serotonergic. Aggression has also been coupled to serotonergic deficit in many studies, supporting the placement of anger/rage on the low-serotonergic side A first approach would involve the administration of tryptophan and/or BH4. Lack of tryptophan in the diet has been linked to decreases in tissue tryptophan and in brain serotonin - changes in tryptophan availability have a direct impact on the rate of 5-HT synthesis Tryptophan enriched diets in animal models have led to increased prefrontal activation, these results seem to suggest that activation of the PFC could be related to a decrease in anxiety/diminishing amygdalar activity and to decrease in depression-related symptoms L-tryptophan has shown efficacy as an isolated substance in the treatment of depressed patients (it lifted the mood of participants and affected the function of brain regions known to be associated with mood regulation), addition of tryptophan to fluoxetine was associated with a greater improvement within the first week of treatment. It also lessened the fluoxetine-induced decrements in slow wave sleep. There were no cases of serious toxicity of the combination; it was very well tolerated overall [1]. Serotonin syndrome resulting from augmentation of antidepressants with L-tryptophan is ‘rare’ It has found use in OCD as an augmentation strategy [2] L-tryptophan was found to be a well tolerated and useful adjunct and standalone antidepressive agent in treatment-resistant unipolar depressed borderline personality disorder patients, with positive effects on sleep, suicidality and social engagement. [3] [1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/11022398/ [2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9393391 [3] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221296261500036X Trp as a dietary manipulation "Impulsive, violent and suicidal behaviours have repeatedly been shown to be associated with a reduction in serotonergic activity in the central nervous system. Tryptophan supplementation may be most effective in reducing aggression during times of stress. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the dietary precursor to serotonin, and several lines of evidence have suggested that the amount of tryptophan in the diet relates closely to aggressive behavior. For example, rats given a diet almost lacking in tryptophan develop aggressive behavior In a group of depressed alcoholics, those with a history of aggression, including suicide attempts, also had the lowest tryptophan ratios When hospitalized male schizophrenics were given tryptophan, only those patients with high levels of hostility and a high lifetime frequency of aggressive incidents benefited; these patients showed a lessening of hostility and depression, a reduction in ward incidents and improvement on a standardized psychiatric rating scale." Note: A diet high in Trp, but with a large amount of LNAAs (leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and valine), will not result in higher brain Trp levels, and may even decrease Trp uptake into the brain. An intervention rich in Trp relative to other LNAAs (including is needed in order to boost uptake of Trp, and consequently serotonin production, in the brain. It may be more difficult for the prefrontal cortex to control negative emotional responses that are generated within the amygdala under low serotonin, meaning Trp may help [1] Low tryptophan levels may significantly affect the mood and may contribute to anti-social, aggressive and impulsive behaviours [2] Tryptophan metabolism is disturbed in abstinence Experimental lowering of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission by acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) induces a transient depressed mood in 50–60% of patients treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) who are in remission from depression [3]. It has been claimed by some that simple dietary manipulation is not an effective method to increase brain Trp and 5-HT. The effect of an SSRI on extracellular 5-HT are dependent on the nutritional availability of Trp. Moreover, increased availability of TRP affects behaviour in a manner similar to SSRI administration. While caution is advised, it's being explored as an augmentation strategy [4] "...nutritional factors play an important role in the biosynthesis of 5-HT. Increasing 5-HT levels by increasing the availability of TRP might augment the therapeutic efficacy of SSRIs, whereas malnutrition may render patients refractory to SSRI treatment.” Studies suggest long-term effects of dietary Trp on stress responsiveness Acute tryptophan depletion caused a significant decrease in perceived control and increase in interfering thoughts at the time of provocation in OCD. "Successful selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder may involve the ability of serotonin to switch habitual responding to goal-directed behaviour." and it has been proposed tryptophan or 5-HTP may augment the effectiveness of antidepressants. Trp supplementation seems to improve control over social behaviour in patients and individuals suffering from disorders or behaviours associated with dysfunctions in serotonergic functioning - in healthy humans supplementation seems to promote social behaviour [5]. Review: Effects of tryptophan loading on human cognition, mood, and sleep [1] https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/serotonin-levels-affect-the-brain’s-response-to-anger [2] https://www.salubrainous.com/tryptophan-for-alcoholism/ [3] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165032705000182 [4] https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-003-1632-6 [5] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.02.022 Part of the fun with effectively bolstering serotonergic activity is that positive beliefs come on line (or feel positively amendable), what were heavy cognitive self-referential processes taper down there's a socio-emotional dimension that comes on line and cognitive/behavioural flexibility bolsters. Studies show that the relationship between the activation of serotonin and subsequent behaviour is highly dependent on the belief about the circumstances [1] Self-referential processing is a key cognitive process, associated with the serotonergic system and the default mode network (DMN). "Typically, depressed individuals endorse more negative adjectives as self-referential than non-depressed individuals. This bias in self-referential processing is also present in individuals who have remitted depression, suggesting that negative cognitive biases persist even when symptoms are no longer evident." "Analytical self-focused rumination (thinking analytically about self and symptoms) is maladaptive - This cognitive style is associated with overgeneral autobiographical memory, global negative self-judgments, greater negative future thinking, and dysphoria." It appears to reflect DMN connectivity which can be modulated by TRP [3] [1] https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-06/oios-wfi053018.php [2] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016801021002835X There are a few 'side effects' to Trp While "involvement of 5-HT in rewarding and aversive processing, hedonic experience, mood and higher cognitive functions such as consciousness or self reflection are undisputed" and there seems to be a good level of "contentedness" and mood/emotional regulation... Manipulations of serotonergic tone affect reward [1] and decision making [2]. Depleted states cause one to be significantly more perseverative over choices and acutely significantly less sensitive to reward (lower reward magnitude) For me, the impulsive reward chasing loops start to seemingly undergo some changes (serotonin has been proposed as a possible encoder of reward and facilitator of reward extinction): you go from impulsive action to greater conscious choice but it doesn't feel as rewarding to do things. It's a little blunting. So those healthy addictions, for me gardening and daily walking, start to feel more effort-driven than impulse driven and require more effort in. If you're not careful, you can become content with inaction. Depletion of 5-HT enhances behavioural and brain responsiveness to aversive signals, while disinhibiting previously rewarded but now aversive behaviours. [3] You start to seemingly have a layer of higher order self-reflection come in. You want better choices. It has been proposed "5-HT encodes beneficialness, and may signal motivation to either maintain or switch current behaviour, for example displayed by 5-HT’s role in facilitating patience for future rewards" [1] https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00484/full [2] http://www.jneurosci.org/content/32/17/5833 [3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18069045
  14. 4 points
    worm farming workx! unless you are super rich, try to always use existing materials. in this case flower pots, stacked on top of each other. after a few months, one can use the contents of the bottom container... without having to pick worms, all the worms moved to the rich picking above! I feed cow manure, as I can collect it. note the eggs in the 1st pic. I used fresh casting of the worm farm on waterchest nuts for example elocharis dulcis, and the water stayed pristine., from day one onwards. I have fed old blue jeans to the worms and they ate it within 14 days!
  15. 4 points
  16. 4 points
    Yeah. It'd be cool if the law was a bit more relaxed about burial sites. I'm pretty well resigned to being forgotten a generation after I'm gone. I actually take a lot of peace from that.
  17. 4 points
    Second LW fruit for the season. Another Jourd. Probably one for giveaway at the next meet
  18. 4 points
    Growing from seed is indeed the easiest way to grow an army of variegates, crested, etc. I'm a big proponent of growing from seed as you get to see the various phenotypes available in a single batch and more importantly... the best ones haven't been picked out for some other persons private collection. When you grow from seed you have the opportunity to get some of the finest cacti you can possibly hope to encounter and at a bargain price. On the plus side, growing from seed also affords you the opportunity to learn to graft to expedite some of your seedlings growth. With that being said, you may want to purchase more seed than you plan on growing out if you will account for a few failed graft attempts along the way. One of my latest seedlings...
  19. 4 points
    Just get them all...Welcome to the forums bro..
  20. 4 points
    There's no single clone that's better than all the rest. There's pros and cons for each and every type. So don't think that you can stick to just a few awesome types and not waste time on the others. It's not really like that. Just get hold of a nice variety of different clones and you will learn from and appreciate each one in it's own special ways. Even common old PC is good for some things, especially if you get a ute load for free. Having said all that there are a few all round tried and true standouts that will always satisfy your cactus growing interest. 1 in particular is Psycho0. It's just a great performer that deserves a place in any cacti collection. However, this list of recommendations will quickly explode to include almost every clone there is.
  21. 4 points
    what our community needs is a yearly award, for supporting the platform and peoples. we need to celebrate more our work! just my todays pipe dream... 1, a few members sell stock, say 400aud, all up. 2, maybe most (consolidation no I leave it), reputation points person wins, cash prize 400aud, plus fanfare etc.. 3, mods excluded participating. off to shed, building a trophy for the "shaman of the year award"
  22. 3 points
    Well modulating 5-HT did something helpful, temporarily... In a moment of impulsivity went back to what was my first point of call after abstinence. Cheap old thiamine, was my body really getting enough or could that help explain the scary deteriorating struggle town I was in each day? Not going to neglect the other vitamins see table in this article The B vitamins: nomenclature, dietary sources, coenzyme forms (roles), symptoms of deficiency, and risk factors (over and above low consumption). Of all the evidence based things I've tried to stay on top of, thiamine was one major legitimate concern. Thought I was including enough to try and cover that concern... but I upped the thiamine quite a bit.... and felt slightly better. A few days, even better. These days of supplements being so dodgy in quality, I'll only use simple cheap pharmaceutical grade thiamine I trust from the chemist not some novel derivative. B1 Thiamine - brain deficiency particularly seen in alcohol abuse, obesity Mild deficiency: irritability, emotional disturbances, confusion, disturbed sleep, memory loss Deficiency: Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (neurodegeneration, within the medial thalamus and cerebellum). Ataxia, abnormal motor function and eye movement, amnesia, apathy, confabulation - Thiamine deficient rats developed learning and memory deficits as well as aggressive behaviour - There was significant cognitive deteriorations in the psychoneurotic scales in thiamine deprived participants . - There was significant association between improved thiamine status and enhanced performance across a range of cognitive-function test [ref] Thought I was on enough but if you start getting weird neurological symptoms and cognitive decline, it seems to be a really good thing to knock out as a potential causative factor ASAP rather than fluffing around, particularly if you've been on anything thiamine depleting. Not just take a bit but saturate your system with it for awhile... Particularly when if you're getting changes in mental state and cognitive deterioration - disoriented, inattentive, agitated etc Any thiamine experts? How much thiamine is actually needed for abstinence recovery? How long do you need to maintain high-dose supplementation for? I used 100mg/day for a bit then I was using about 50mg/day. Maybe that simply wasn't enough Alterations of serotonergic parameters have been demonstrated in experimental thiamine deficiency. "...data suggest that 5-HT neurons, although structurally intact, are functionally affected early during the progression of thiamine deficiency. These alterations, which are likely a part of adaptive neuronal change consequent to thiamine dysfunction, may be important in the physiological manifestations and the learning deficits commonly encountered in experimental thiamine deficiency. " Stuck with it a few days, got out in the garden more. Feel just clearheaded, been more able to persist with goal-directed tasks, not irritable. Calm and collected in the most grounded way I've felt for awhile. Stability of mood. I've actually slept in past my usual 3.30am wake up time, too. With 50mg in healthy subjects: An improvement in thiamine status was associated with reports of being more clearheaded, composed and energetic. These influences took place in subjects whose thiamine status, according to the traditional criterion, was adequate. Once again, this seems to have antidepressant augmenting effects in human studies [1]. In a small study, thiamine supplementation significantly improved anxiety scores, general well-being and reduced fatigue in patients with Generalised Anxiety Disorder. "Interestingly these patients were able to discontinue taking anxiolytic and β-blocker medications." [2]. It has also been found thiamine supplementation shows a beneficial clinical effect on children with autism [3]. [1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26984349 [2] https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7c1b/53c8c4dbfdccf441a16bcc1464b2b26c9c55.pdf [3] http://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajpn.20130102.11.pdf "Thiamine is being used to improve brain function and it is also shown to help treat neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons" It's established "thiamine supplemented abstinent rats made a faster recovery of hepatic and neuronal damage than in the abstinence group. Changes in neurotransmitter levels in brain were also reversed by thiamine supplementation. DNA damage was decreased and DNA content increased in thiamine supplemented group compared to abstinence group showing a faster regeneration" [1] It is claimed Steve Jobs took massive doses of thiamine when he was experimenting with other stuff and said both were about equally effective as idea stimulators, but B1 did not have the psychoactive effect. Thiamine compounds may act by boosting anti-oxidant cellular defenses and prevent stress-induced inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis [2] Thiamine has antidepressant/anti-stress effects that are associated with reduced GSK-3β expression and conditioning of adverse memories [3] High doses have some utility in dementia potentially due to a cholinomimetic effect of thiamine in the central nervous system [4] Thiamine is required to synthesise acetylcholine (ACh). Thiamine is involved in the presynaptic release of ACh; thiamine binds to nicotinic receptors and exhibits anticholinesterase activity The treatment with thiamine led to a significant improvement of Parkinson's symptoms. Experimental findings showed an increased dopamine release in rat striatum after the intrastriatal thiamine administration and "high doses of thiamine, could lead to an increase of synthesis and release of the endogenous dopamine, to an increase of activity of the thiamine-dependent enzymes" [5] A thiamine derivative promotes voluntary activity through dopaminergic activation [6] The same derivative has been found to make mice engage in more passive cuddling-type behaviours. Likewise acute sulbutiamine induced a modulatory effect on glutamatergic and dopaminergic cortical transmissions in the rat brain It has anticonvulsant effects [7] One report of a healthy subject taking mega-doses: "I have been using megadoses of Thiamine (Vit. B1) on and off for over a year and am greatly impressed. I always take a 250 mg or 300 mg B1 pill with a Vitamin B Complex (100 mgs/mcgs of the various B Vitamins) usually twice per day (once with breakfast and once with lunch). Good things about Thiamine megadoses: - Greatly improves my attention to detail on reading tasks. Without it I often struggle reading through pubmed articles for example, with it I read every single word quickly and understand what the article is about without giving up (I often 'give up' without this given that I have inattentive type ADD). - Greatly improves ability to do 'boring' mundane tasks. For example, when doing boring checking tasts at work, this helps me rip through them better than anything else. Also lets me rip through chores easily. - Improves my motivation. It allows me to follow a more disciplined lifestyle (eating healthier, sticking to routines, doing boring chores without too much hassle, etc.) - Gives me more mental energy and I feel more awake generally in the daytime." [8] [1] https://www.ijpp.com/IJPP archives/2013_57_4_Oct - Dec/406-417.pdf [2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28506637 [3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27825907 [4] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8251051 [5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4828997/ [6] https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-28462-2 [7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28766407 [8] https://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/65238-megadosing-thiamine-for-motivation-and-sexual-arousal/ I've learned with a potential deficiency ie thiamine, don't skimp on doses of the safe ones. Doses of high magnitude for longer periods are required to replenish many B vitamin levels and correct enzymatic activity, particularly with those who have restriction in their ability to absorb them. There is a linear dose response following single oral doses of thiamine in terms of whole blood and plasma levels up to the maximum administered dose of 1500 mg (corresponding to more than 1000 times the RDA). Higher doses have also been used such as 3g. It's seemingly better to get those levels up. "Epidemiological evidence suggests that the benefits of B vitamins extend well beyond the accepted biochemical cut-offs for deficiency or marginal deficiency" Other B deficiencies from [ref]: B2 Riboflavin Fatigue, personality change, brain dysfunction B3 Niacin - Particularly seen in alcohol abuse Depression, anxiety, progressing to vertigo, memory loss, paranoia, psychotic symptoms, aggression (Pellagrous insanity) B5 Pantothenic acid Encephalopathy, behaviour change, demyelination B6 Vitamin B6 (referring to: pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, pyridoxine) Particularly seen in Alcohol abuse, age-related malabsorption, contraceptive medications Irritability, impaired alertness, depression, cognitive decline, dementia, autonomic dysfunction, convulsions B7 Biotin - particularly seen in Type II diabetes, poor gluco-regulation Depression, lethargy, hallucinations, seizures B9 Folic acid/folate - particularly seen in Common genetic polymorphisms (inc. MTHFR C667T) Low Riboflavin and B12 B12 Vitamin B12 - particularly seen in age-related malabsorption, vegetarians, vegans, genetic polymorphisms Both cause affective disorders, behaviour changes, psychosis, cognitive impairment/decline, dementia (inc Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia) Observational and controlled trial research being focused disproportionately on just three of the vitamins—folate and vitamins B6 and B12. "Unfortunately, there is a general dearth of controlled trial research into the effects of the remaining B vitamins on brain function"
  23. 3 points
    i'm all for questioning the 'mainstream' and it's important to do so, but there's limits, because the 'mainstream' is actually the product of hundreds if not thousands of years of investigation. paradigms don't get frequently overturned, they are slowly evolving. For example, the sphinx won't end up being 20k yrs old, but its state of preservation may indicate a period of rapid erosion by water during recent fluvial period of short duration (such as the medial climatic optimum), and this fluvial period may end up being politically important, a marker of its own paradigmatic importance... and these Bosnian pyramids won't end up being made by humans. if something is too far outside the paradigm it is not usually accurate, because the 'paradigm' is a collaborative effort where these speculative theories are left field. But the interest is commendable. my general feeling, read all the standard stuff first because it's the best approximation.
  24. 3 points
    Rusty Plum - Niemeyera whitei
  25. 3 points